Boyle's Law (P+V):
Pressure and volume are INVERSELY proportional.
i.e. -as pressure increase, volume decreases.
-as pressure decreases, volume increases.
P1V1 = P2V2
Charle's Law (V+T):
Volume and temp. are DIRECTLY proportional
i.e if temp increases, volume increases & if temp decreases, volume decreases.
V1/T1 = V2/T2
*Use KELVIN (K) rather than celsius.
^0C + 273 = K
K - 273 = ^0C
Combined Gas Law (P,V and T):
P1V1/ T1 = P2V2/T2
Vapour pressure, melting temperature and boiling temperature.
*Applies to liquids and solutions.
As a liquid boils, bubbles of gas form inside the liquid, and if there's enough pressure inside the bubble, it will rise to the surface, burst and release vapour.
=> When MAX vapour pressure = Atmosphere Pressure
Define: Vapour Pressure
Collisions of the vapour from the liquid.
Adding a Solute (Effects on Boiling Point and Melting Point):
B.Point and M.Point are changed by adding another chemical;
B.point increases, but freezing point decreases.
The more moles of solute (i.e. greater number of particles attracting H2O), the higher the boiling point (due to increased number of ions).
-Energy is measured in kJ, and in an equations, kJ/mol.
-Reactants have a given amount of chemical energy/ enthalpy (Hr).
- Products have a given amount of enthalpy (Hp).
=> The amount of energy GIVEN OUT OR ABSORBED is called the HEAT OF THE REACTION.