Kinetic Theory, Reaction Rates and Energy Effects
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jannika12 on May 22, 2012
quantitive relationships between gases, colligative properties, vapour pressure and boiling pressure, and energy effects.
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|Boyle's Law (P+V):|| Pressure and volume are INVERSELY proportional.|
i.e. -as pressure increase, volume decreases.
-as pressure decreases, volume increases.
P1V1 = P2V2
|Charle's Law (V+T):|| Volume and temp. are DIRECTLY proportional|
i.e if temp increases, volume increases & if temp decreases, volume decreases.
V1/T1 = V2/T2
*Use KELVIN (K) rather than celsius.
^0C + 273 = K
K - 273 = ^0C
|Combined Gas Law (P,V and T):||P1V1/ T1 = P2V2/T2|
|Colligative Properties:|| Vapour pressure, melting temperature and boiling temperature. |
*Applies to liquids and solutions.
|Boiling Pressure:|| As a liquid boils, bubbles of gas form inside the liquid, and if there's enough pressure inside the bubble, it will rise to the surface, burst and release vapour.|
=> When MAX vapour pressure = Atmosphere Pressure
|Define: Vapour Pressure||Collisions of the vapour from the liquid.|
|Adding a Solute (Effects on Boiling Point and Melting Point):|| B.Point and M.Point are changed by adding another chemical;|
B.point increases, but freezing point decreases.
The more moles of solute (i.e. greater number of particles attracting H2O), the higher the boiling point (due to increased number of ions).
|Energy Effects:|| -Energy is measured in kJ, and in an equations, kJ/mol.|
-Reactants have a given amount of chemical energy/ enthalpy (Hr).
- Products have a given amount of enthalpy (Hp).
=> The amount of energy GIVEN OUT OR ABSORBED is called the HEAT OF THE REACTION.