Foreign Policy Midterm

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Monroe Doctrine 1823

outlined differences between Europe and Americas -- foundation of exceptionalism

two spheres concept

designed by Monroe Doctrine, outlined the power politics focus of Europe versus the free states of the Americas

Roosevelt Corollary 1904

extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Wilsonian idealism

liberty and democracy of the United States is worthy of emulation and should be promoted in the world, moral principles should guide (active) US foreign policy, cooperation must replace power politics and aggression

National Origin Act 1924

limited the flow of immigration because of the fear of communism and foreign influences (notable social isolationism)

Smoot-Hawley Tariff 1930

raises tariff rates, tried to protect American business, ended up deepening the world depression

Notable economic isolationism

Smoot-Hawley Tariff

Notable social isolationism

National Origin Act 1924

Notable political isolationism

American refusal to join the League of Nations

Nixon

realist President focused on China and keeping global equilibrium

Carter

idealist President focused on domestic American values, human rights and global cooperation

Reagan

realist President who increased defense spending greatly and focused on reviving containment

Tet Offensive

North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam

H.W. Bush

realist President who demonstrated great caution in foreign policy, end of Cold War focused on building new world order

Truman Doctrine:

to suppress possibility of communist insurgency in Greece and Turkey, lobbied Congress to provide military and economic aid

Eisenhower Doctrine

declared the policy of the US to intervene militarily in the Middle East to protect legitimate governments from communist subversion

Nixon Doctrine

encouraged Asian allies to wean themselves off US military aid in war on communism

Carter Doctrine

young-cold-war like rhetoric that committed the US to protect the countries of the Persian Gulf from outside interference

Clinton

liberal internationalism, seen as domestic policy specialist, enlargement and selective engagement

Bush Doctrine

declares US to go after all terrorist with a global reach and the states which harbor them

Liberal internationalism

a liberal IR theory which stresses the role of domestic institutions, such as democratic governance, in aiding international cooperation and peace

enlargement

use of free markets to promote global democracy

selective engagement

realism "lite" US acts abroad when national interests are at stake, peacekeeping not peace building

George W. Bush

classical realist at first then defensive realist

defensive realism

importance of security as motivating factor, coalitional effort only to combat terrorism, internal characteristics of other regimes matter

Resolution 1441

Iraq breached the UN weapons agreement of post- Gulf War

Washington farewell address

warned against parties, sectionalism and international entanglements; economic relations but no political bonds to other nations

Roosevelt

President who planned for total defeat and disarming of adversaries post WWII, prevent economic depression, global security organization, work with USSR

Yalta Axioms

cold war driven by power realities and struggle for post-war hegemony between USSR and US

Riga Axioms

cold war driven by ideological considerations and differences between USSR and US

Yalta Conference

agreements that signaled American involvement in Europe post-war, also declared a liberated democratic Europe

Truman

president who supported Wilsonian Idealism and whose advisors had strong anti USSR sentiments

Long Telegram to D.C.

Written by George Kennan as Mr. X, cautioned the Soviet's insecurity and determination to advance interests and disrupt American global authority

Nokolai Novikov

rebuttal to Long Telegram by soviet ambassador arguing US intentions for global supremacy

Tripartite Treaty Alliance

showed that getting tough against Soviets proved successful after forced removal of Soviets from Iran

Containment

term authored by Kennan as Mr. X, had 3 initiatives

three initiatives of containment

1) establishing regional political-military alliances, 2) economic and military assistance to friendly nations 3) domestic cold war through NSC-68

Mutual Defense Assistance Act 1949

signed after Soviets tested atomic bomb, provided military aid in bordering states of USSR

NSC-68

four policy options for responding to soviets, chose the fourth to build rapidly the strength of the free world

Korean War

US abandoned isolationism for globalism officially at this point after unilaterally enforcing containment

Munich Syndrome

fear of appeasing an aggressor as Chamberlain had done with Hitler, continued use of violence in Cold War

Nonaligned Movement

began by Nehru in India, major policy block to bipolar approach of US, most newly independent states joined

Cuban Missile Crisis

violation of Soviet commitment to introduce only defensive weapons into countries, decision by US is naval quarantine

falling dominoes

Eisenhower referred to this spread of communism in Asia before Vietnam war

Gulf of Tonkin resolution

Congress authorizes military involvement in Vietnam war

Kissinger

national security advisor under Nixon who emphasized balance of power politics and the idea of linkage, hated any inhibition of role of statesman

linkage

all foreign policy behavior linked to behavior of another country, need for stabilization against revolutionary forces

Detente

Nixon visited China, relaxation of tensions in Helsinki, SALT talks

Shanghai communique

In this agreement, President Richard Nixon and Mao decided to open communication between China and the United States.

Helsinki Accords

Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries

Curtis-Wright Export Corporation vs. U.S.

most important and sweeping grant of power to executive in foreign policy, court held that the delegation of power to the executive NOT unconstitutional because dealt with external affairs

Missouri v. Holland

court case that enlarged the treaty powers of President

Belmont v. Pink

Court case that gave legitimacy to executive agreements as the law of the land, despite not having congressional actions

Public Law 107-40 and 243

Congressional deference to President after 9/11 to fight Iraq

Rational Choice Theory unit of analysis

individual actor in a bureaucracy

Organizational Process Model unit of analysis

choices are outputs of large organizations which function according to regular patterns of behavior

Bureaucratic politics Model unit of analysis

Choices are outcomes of various bargaining games between players in hierarchical nat'l gvt.

Brookings Institution

Most liberal think tanks

Heritage Foundation and Cato Institute

Most conservative think tanks

AEI and CSIS

Most centered think tanks

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