Med tech

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Pg 297

AIDS

caused by the human immunodefciency virus (HIV) and supresses the immune system

aerobic

requiring oxygen in order to live and grow

airborne precautions

used for patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei, small particles of evaporated droplets taht contain microorganisms and remain suspended in the air or on dust particles

antisepsis

aseptic control that inhibits,retards growth of,or kills pathogenic organisms;not effective against spores and viruses

asepsis

being free from infection

autoclave

piece of equipment used to sterilize articles by way of steam under pressure and/or dry heat

bacteria

one celled microorganisms, some of which are beneficial and some of which cause disease

causative agent

pathogen, such as bacterium or virus

cavitation

the cleaning proces employed in an ultrasonic unit ; bubbles explode to drive cleaning solution onto article being cleaned

chain of infection

factors that lead to the transmission or spread of disease

chemical disinfection

substances or solutions are used to disinfect articles; does not always kill spores and viruses

clean

free from organisms causing disease

communicable disease

disease that is transmitted from one individual to another

contact precautions

must be followed for by any patients known or suspected to be infected with epidermiologically important microorganisms that can be transmitted by either direct or indirect contact

contaminated

containing infection or infectious organisms or germs

disinfection

aseptic control method that destroys pathogens but does not usually kill spores and viruses

droplet precautions

must be followed by patient known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by large particle droplets expelled during coughing, sneezing, talking, or laughing

endogenous

infection or disease originating within the body

exogenous

infection or disease orginating outside of or external to the body

fomites

any substance or object that adheres to and transmits infectious material

fungi

group of simple, plantlike animals that live on dead organic matter

hepatitis B

inflamation of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus HBV which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids

hepatitis C

inflammation of the liver caused by HCV transmitted by exposure to infected blood

microoganism

small,living plant or animal not visible to the naked eye

mode of transmission

way in which a pathogen can be transmitted to another reservoir or host where it can live

nonpathogens

a microorganism that is not capable of causing a disease

nosocomial

pertaining to or orginating in a health care facility such as a hospital

opportunistic

infections that occur when the body's defenses are weak

pathogens

disease producing organisms

personal protective equipment

items such as gloves, gowns, masks, protective eyewear,and hair coverings are used to protect the nurse from infectious organisms

portal of entry

a pathway by which the causative agent enters the host

portal of exit

the way a microbe leaves the body when a pathogenic cycle is over

protective isolation

technique used to provide care to patients requiring protection from organisms in the eniviroment

protozoa

microscopic, one celled animals often found in decayed materials and contaminated water

reservoir

anything in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies

rickettsiae

parasitic microorganisms that live on other living organisms

standard precautions

recommendations that must be followed to prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms by way of blood and body fluids

sterile

free of all organisms, including spores and viruses

sterile field

an area that is set up for certain procedures and is free from all organisms

sterilization

process that results in total destruction of all microorganisms; also, surgical procedure that prevents conception of a child

susceptible host

host not possessing resistance against an infectious agent

transmission-based isolation precautions

method or technique of caring for patients who have communicable diseases

ultrasonic

piece of equipment that cleans with sound waves

viruses

one of a large group of very small microorganisms, many of which cause disease

anaerobic

not requiring oxygen in order to live and grow; able to thrive in the absence of oxygen

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