Leaf or fruit fall because of death of cells in the abscission layer in the stalk
threatening behaviour usually associated with competition. It can involve predation however. A more specific term agonistic behaviour refers to conflicts within species but excludes predation.
Chemical inhibition of one species by another. Almost the same as antibiosis, but emphasises the chemical connection.
When a gesture contains elements of dominance and submission.
an interspecific relationship where one organism is harmed by a chemical inhibitor, whilst the other in ueffected.
A tree where there is one main trunk and much smaller side branches. A bush is where all stems are equal.
A plant hormone that controls cell elongation. Produced in the shoot tip. Promotes differentiation of cells formed in the meristematic cambium
Where an unpalatable model is mimicked by a palatable organism.
Internal timing systems that continue without external cues, and control (to some extent) the timing activities of plants and animals.
Used to describe an endogenous rhythm. Circa means "about," i.e. Circaannual, about one year. may fall just short to just late.
Rhythm of 24 hours
Rhythm of 12.5 hours
Rhythm of 1 month
Rhythm of 1 year
When one species is benefited whilst the other is unaffected.
When an animal is active at dusk and dawn
Day Neutral Plant
A plant that flowers independently of the day length or the season
Active during the day.
When seeds will no germinate unless in certain conditions happen.
needs water, Oxygen, Warm temperature.
An internal rhythm that occurs when there are no external cues. It is caused by a biological clock.
Forcing the free running period to follow an external pattern.
An internal rhythm that occurs when there are external cues.
Free running period
The natural period of the rhythm if there are no external cues.
When animals are ranked. A linear hierarchy is where every animal is above or below another, i.e. there are no equals.
An area an animal uses for food but will not defend.
The ability to find and return to the home site over unfamiliar territory.
Indoleacetic Acid (auxin)
A whole body response in animals to a stimulus. The Direction of the response is independent of the stimulus, (Non directional), but is dependent on the intensity of the stimulus.
Annual mass movement of animals from breeding areas to other non breeding areas, and then returning.
Long day Plant
Plant that flowers with a long photo period (Usually over 12 hrs)
Where several unpalatable species have similar colourations.
A inter specific relationship where both species benefit
A rapid, reversible movement in plants. It is non directional of the stimulus. Not a growth response, but rather a movement caused by turgor pressure.
One species benefits and the other is harmed. Form of exploitation, but the host is not killed
The length of a rhythm, how long it takes to repeat
The close up distance round an animal that is never invaded except for mating or fighting
To change the start time of a rhythm, but not its period. Caused by entrainment.
The response of plants to lengths of day.
Plant pigment that controls the photoperiodic response by acting as a signal
Phytochrome Far red, Produced when there is red light. It absorbs far red light to turn into Pr. Pfr is slowly converted into Pr during the night. More Pfr indicates a long day.
Phytochrome red. Produced when there is far red light. It absorbs red light to turn into Pfr. Pr is rapidly converted to Pfr during the day when there is red light. More Pr indicates a long night / short day.
Short Day plant
Flowers when there is a Short photo period.
A biological clock the enables a migrating bird or insect to fly using the sun and continuously adjust it angle to the sun while flying. Most dominant Navigation system
Movement of an animal or part of its body towards or away from a directional stimulus
An area used by an animal for feeding or breeding, that the animal will defend
Plant growth response to a directional tropism
Exposure of seeds to a period of cold to break the seeds' dormancy.
Time signal for a biological clock. eg. sunrise, sunset, temperature, tidal movement, and day length.
Promotes formation of abscission zone, the layer of cells where leaves and fruit will fall from a tree.
Promotes seed dormancy
Stimulates closing of stomata
Produced in shoot and root tips. Promotes cell elongations, breaks seed and bud dormancy, and promotes cell differentiation.
Tip of root that contains undifferentiated cells
Plant tissue found between the secondary xylem and phloem
Transport tissue for water
Transport tissue cells for food
Protective Plant tissue
storage Plant tissue
Strengthening Plant tissues
Collenchyma and sclerenchyma
Plant hormone produced in the root tips. Promotes mitotic cell division.
Accumulates in ageing fruit to promote ripening, also assists in leaf fall.