A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.
Invented the seed drill
The act of enclosing fences around land to use for cultivation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
the increasing and decreasing of a population (large increase during the Agricultural Revolution)
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought (exporting > importing)
taxes on imported goods
an economic system based on private ownership of capital (anti-mercantilism)
Father of capitalism
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
an early spinning machine with multiple spindles
a loom operated mechanically, run by water putting the loom side by side wit hthe spinning machines in factories, changed workers job from running it to watching it, Invented in 1787, invented by Edward Cartwright , it speeded up the production of textiles
An Engine powered by steam that was later advanced by James Watt in the 1760s and '70s
place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods (most popular at the time made textiles using wool and cotton)
Why IR occured in Great Britain?
new inventions, advancements in agriculture, greater population (for workers), pro-business government, supply of raw materials
Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
Factory act of 1833
limited the factory workday for children beteween nine and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen to twelve hours
Mines act of 1842
Significant regulation in coal mines in Britain. Forbade employment underground of women and girls and boys under 10.
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
an economic system based on state ownership of capital
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Founder of modern communism
the class of modern capitalists, owners of the means of social production and employers of wage labor; Marx and Engels
the industrial working class
Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyond the Reform Act of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed.
Universal Male Suffrage
The extension of the right to vote to all males regardless of social standing or race, whose movement had begun in the early-mid 1800's
Causes of the 1848 Revolutions
liberal reformers and radical politicians; crop failures made it diffucult for peasants to get food
Otto Von Bismark
Prussian prime minister, he led the unification of Germany and the creation of the German empire.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule. (main reason the south america colonies were freed)
europeos; Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class
descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
persons of mixed European and African ancestry
bottom of the social class in latin america
native people of the americas populated 55%
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
A war between China and Japan for influence, power, and territory
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
conflict between Britain and China in 1839 over the Opium trade
Treaty Of Nanjing
"unequal treaty" to end Opium War in which China had to accept British terms for peace
Decline of Slave Trade
led to the increase of palm oil trade
a byproduct of the palm tree that was used by Britain as a good that could distract the market from slave trade. The trading of this legitimate good led to a decline in slave trade. From this resource cheap and clean soap was made as well as candles, which underwent mass production.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain. (the dude who cut off hands)
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Boers.
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions.
This was a short ottoman parliament designed to model the western model of an empire
soldiers in the elite guard of the Ottoman Turks
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry (later called central powers)
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI. (later called the alliances)
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.
Treaty Of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
An agreement between the british and the french. France gets Syria and Lebanon, and Britain gets Iraq, Palestine, and Transjordan.
Lawrence of Arabia
Welsh soldier who from 1916 to 1918 organized the Arab revolt against the Turks
king of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975 (1906-1975)
Treaty of Lausanne
The 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish War and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey
Mustafa Kemel (Ataturk)
lead turkish nationalists to over through the sultan and modernize
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Ruler of Iran . He worked for modernization and education. He worked on social legislation, ousted by British during WWII
whe 50 british indian army soldiers opened fire on an unarmed gather of men, women, and children
Muslims and Hindus were having conflicts over land
This was a leader of the Indian independence movement in mid-20th century known for his nonviolent protests.
literally means "truth force," it was Gandhi's name for his non-violent resistance
a method of non violent protest against laws or polices in order to force a change
May Fourth Movement (1919)
China's nationalist movement to get Japan (and other countries) out of China
New Culture Movement
Questioning of confucian values and Chinese culture. encouraged youth to be individual and free
Leader of the Nationalist Party after 1925
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
The Long Walk
forced journey of hundreds of miles by Navajo in 1800s
powerful banking and industrial families in Japan
The Rape of Nanjing
Japan bombing civilians in cities and burned one-third of Nanjing houses. 400,000 Chinese were used for bayonet practice and machine-gunned.
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939
a political philosophy that glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler
dictator of italy
A group of laws that robbed German Jews of their citizenship in 1935
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.