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Part of Unit I

List the functions of the endocrine system

Produce Hormones
Regulate body functions

Compare and contrast the endocrine/nervous system

Endocrine: slow to act
Long duration
Hormones
Control over many cells
Negative feedback (opposes the change)
Preserve homeostasis

Nervous: Fast to act
Short duration
Neurotransmitters
Control of specific & limited # of cells
Negative feedback (opposes the change)
Preserve homeostasis

*Both helps coordinate and integrate the activity of the body's cells/

Compare and contrast hormones/neurotransmitters

Hormones:
organic chemical messenger that travels through the blood and targets a cell/tissue. Either steroids or amino acid-based molecules

Neurotransmitters (NTM)
released by neurons and bind to receptor of adjacent cell

Define hormone and differentiate btwn biogenic amines, protein, and steroid hormones

Hormones: an organic chemical messenger that travels through the blood and targets a cell/tissue which will stimulate or inhibit a function.

Define hormone and differentiate btwn biogenic amines, protein, and steroid hormones

Biogenic amines aka amino acid derivatives

Thyroid hormones T3 and T4, adrenal medulla hormones (epinephrine and nor-epinephrine.

Small peptide
Derived from tyrosine and tryptophan.
Pineal gland hormone (melatonin).

Define hormone and differentiate btwn biogenic amines, protein, and steroid hormones

Protein aka Peptide

Hypothalamus and pituitary hormones, calcitionin, PTH, insulin, glucagon

Large
*If hormone is not steroid or T3/T4, then peptide
Amino Acid chain (>200)
Receptor on target cel membrane (hydrophilic)
Requires Receptor

Define hormone and differentiate btwn biogenic amines, protein, and steroid hormones

Steroid

sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone), cortisol, aldosterone

lipid like (hydrophobic)
derived from cholesterol
require a carrier in the blood (does not do well in blood)
receptor in cytoplasm or nucleus

Name, identify, and list the secretions of each of the following endocrine glands
Hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
thyroid gland
parathyroid glad
adrenal cortex and medulla
pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
ovaries
testes
pineal gland

Hypothalamus

Explain the major difference btwn the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis

Adenohypophysis is the anterior pituitary gland where it releases the hormone.

Neurohypophysis is the posterior pituitary gland and it stored first, then release of the hormones

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

Diabetes:
Hyposecretion of insulin or some deficiency in the insulin receptors.
Inability of body cells to utilize glucose and the subsequent loss of glucose in the urine

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

dwarfism:
Insufficient amount of GH during childhood

Describe the functional relationship btwn the hypothalamus and pituitary.

Produces "releaseing and inhibiting hormones" which control the production and release of anterior pituitary hormones, forms hormones ADH and oxytocin, which are transported to the posterior pituitary and later released on nervous stimulation from the hypothalamus

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

Gigantism:
Excessive amount of GH during childhood

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

Acromegaly:
Excessive amount of GH in the adult

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

Graves Disease(hyperthyroid):

(overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can significantly accelerate your body's metabolism, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

Hypothyroid:

(underactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn't produce enough of certain important hormones.

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

Addison's Disease

Addison's disease is a disorder that occurs when your body produces insufficient amounts of certain hormones produced by your adrenal glands. In Addison's disease, your adrenal glands produce too little cortisol and often insufficient levels of aldosterone as well.

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

Cushing's Disease

Cushing's syndrome occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome, sometimes called hypercortisolism, is the use of oral corticosteroid medication. The condition can also occur when your body makes too much cortisol.

Describe the major disorders associated with the endocrine system: diabetes. dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, Graves disease (hyperthyroid), Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, goiter

Goiter

enlarged thyroid due to lack of I (Iodine)
Visibly enlarged thyroid gland on front of neck

Describe the functioning and relative amounts of the components of blood including:RBC"s (erythrocytes), structure and hemoglobin.

RBC's (erythrocytes)
transport Oxygen and carbon dioxide
No organelles and nucleus
Biconcave disk
Produced in bone marrow, 3 mil RBC's/sec
Recycled in liver, spleen
120 day lifespan
do not reproduce
circulate body in 30-60 sec.
Bring oxygenated blood to toe cell, and deoxygenated blood back up to exhale

Carbonic anhydrase

very imp in RBC
enzyme critical in CO2 transport
CO2 accumulation in the blood results in acid formation (Carbonic acid)
Carbonic Acid brings down blood Ph below 7.4.
maintains proper blood ph by converting CO2 to HC)3 (bicarbonate ion)

Hemoglobin

red pigment, gives blood its color
binds and transports O2 and CO2
4 polypeptide subunits (2 alpha, 2 beta)
4 heme group (holds 1 O2)
Oxyhemoglobin (bright red)
Deoxyhemoglobin (dark red)

IRON binds oxygen

Plasma

55% of blood
Solvent: Water 92% of plasma

Solutes: Plasma Proteins 7%
-albumins:transports lipids (most abundant, egg whites have lot of albumin)
-globulins: antibodies, transport lipid & hormones
-fibrogens: blood clot

Ions, gases, nutrients (1%)

Serum= Plasma - fibrogen (serum does not clot)

Interstitial fluid= Plasma - proteins (in tissues) No proteins

WBC's / leukocytes

1% of cells
part of the immune system
defend against pathogens
High WBC indicates infection
Removes waste, damaged cells
found in circulation and tissue
10 day lifespan, shorter than RBC's 120 days

Neutrophil (never)

70%
multi-lobed nucleus
phagocyte (eat bacteria/stuff)

Eosinophils (eat)

4%
bi-lobed nucleus
allergic response
stains red/orange

Basophils (bananas)

1%
irregular nucleus (horseshoe shaped)
purplish-black granules
releases:
histamine:(inflammation)
heparin (reduces blood clot)

Lymphocytes (let)

Agranulocyte (no granules)

20%
large nucleus
little cytoplasm
lymphatic system
adaptive immune response
T & B cells
Live in lymphnodes & spleen

Monocytes (monkeys)

Agranulocyte (no granules)
5%
kidney-shaped nucleus
in tissues called macrophages
phagocytes

Leukemia

cancer of blood/bone marrow
abnormal amounts of WBC's

Platelets

cell fragments
1. form platelet plug- reduces blood loss
2. Release enzymes- promote clotting at injury site
3. 9 day life span

Outline the sequence of events involved with hemostasis, including vascular, platelet, and coagulation phases

Reduces bleeding/blood loss

1. Vascular spasm:
narrowing closing/constricting blood vessel near injury (circular muscles around arterioles contract)

2. Platelet plug:
platelet cluster at injury site, release enzymes

3. Coagulation (clotting):
Sequence of reactions

Fibrinogen (soluble) - enzymes/platelets (CA2+, Vit K) - Fibrin threads (insoluble)

Hemophilia

lack of clotting factors
genetic disorder
M>F

State the location of importance of hemopoeisis

blood cell formation in red bone marrow (epiphysis of long bones) by myeloid and lymphoid stem cells

1. Erythropoiesis:
Production of RBC's
a. Erythropoietin (EPO): hormone, stimulates lood formation when oxygen is low in periphery (high altitude) produced in kidneys. Target bone marrow

2. Leukopoiesis
Production of WBC's
a. Interleukins & colony-stimulating factors (CSF's)
Protein molecules

Blood Type A

antigen A
Antibody: Anti-B

Blood Type B

antigen B
Antibody: Anti-A

Blood type AB

antigen A & B
Antibody: NONE
Universal recipient

Blood type O

antigen: NONE
Antibody: Anti A & Anti B
Unversal Donor

Rh +

Antigen RH
Antibody: NONE

Rh -

Antigen NONE
Antibody: Anti Rh only after sensitization

Which Ion is essential in the construction of hemoglobin

IRON

Anemia

can not bind oxygen

Intracellular fluid

fluid in cells

Interstitial fluid

fluid around cells

Plasma

fluid in blood vesssels

If we take a sample of 10ml of blood and spin down; if 47% should be cells, where on the test tube should you find the top of the palette

4.7 ml

Embolism

traveling blood clot
lodges itself in vessel and blocks it
most common in lungs

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