ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
RNA is produced from the DNA instructions; message from the DNA is copied on the mRNA in the nucleus
An enzyme that creates an RNA primer for initiation of DNA replication.
a specific DNA sequence before a gene sequence, which binds RNA polymerase to indicate where to start transcribing RNA. (Gene regulation in eukaryotes)
Sequence of bases at the end of a gene that signals the RNA polymerase to stop transcribing
addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain; continues until it reaches a stop codon
stop of mRNA synthesis (i.e., transcription) at the terminator site
DNA replication is initiated when helicase enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the base pairs together and the DNA uncoils.
Prevents destruction of mRNA and is attachment on ribosome
poly A tail
A string of several hundred adenine nucletodies added to the 3' end of the eukaryotic mRNA.
post-transcriptional insertion, deletion, or alteration of bases in the mRNA.
In eukaryotic cells, the process of excising intorns from a primary RNA transcript and joining together exons to form a final mRNA molecule
Long segments of nucleotides that have no coding information
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
Peptidyl-tRNA site; the stie on a ribosome where the growing peptide (attached to a tRNA) is found during translation.
Amino-acyl tRNA site; the site on a ribosome where a new amino acid is added to a growing peptide.
specific codon (AUG) that signals to the ribosome that the translation commences at that point
specific codons that signal the end of translation to a ribosome
three-nucleotide sequence of mRNA that codes for a single amino acid
Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA
sequence of nucleotides that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
polypeptide / protein
The physical process by which a polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure from random coil.
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
one nucleotide in a codon is replaced with a different nucleotide, resulting in a new codon
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome
A point mutation in which a codon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a codon that specifies a different amino acid.
A point mutation in which a condon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a stop (nonsense) codon.
A point mutation in which a codon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a new codon that specifies the same amion acid.
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
changes in a DNA sequence that affect an entire chromosome or multiple chromosomes
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
change to a chromosome in which part of the chromosome is repeated
(genetics) a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome