Strict social class in India
Slaves, diseased and unclean, lowest part in the caste system
How a person lives his or her life will determine what they come back as in the next life.
The Hindu holy book that contains the Hindu story of the creation of the universe.
The eternal spirit in Hinduism. All people, plants, and animals area part of this.
Buddhist belief where you become one with the universe.
Collection of Confucius' teachings written in a book. This was China's most important book for more than 1500 years.
Duty, in India, each person has specific duties based on their caste, age, and gender
Possession of religious images in worship (icons)
Adaption to new people's culture, language, and customs.
Trial by Ordeal
Torturing someone to determine their guilt or innocence
Islamic place of worship
Women had to cover their entire bodies except for their eyes.
Means "The middle ages."
Means "To take up the cross."
Court set up to punish heretics.
People who spoke out against Church doctrines and beliefs.
Where one company controls the sale of all the one type of product.
French word for middle class.
Business association designed to prevent people from buying foreign goods.
People in the same region that have different cultures and customs.
A time period where a country is at its peak
How to change from one caste to another.
This disciple traveled to places along the Mediterranean such as Corinth and Antioch
he leader of the Christians who made his way to Rome and started a church in Rome (Roman Catholic Church). This converted many Romans, however, the government also took notice.
The Roman didn't like Him because they thought He was a rebel. His philosophies were opposite of Rome's (Jesus = love enemy, Rome = kill enemy).
Wanted China to obtain a good and Just government. Preached Ethics - Good conduct and moral judgment. Made Golden Rule - "Do not do unto others what you would not want them to do unto you." Believed "With harmony at home, there will be order in the nation, with order in the nation, there will be peace in the world." From China. In order to create a great country you must first create a great family.
Siddhartha Gautana founded Buddhism and one day his charioteer drove him through India and he saw suffering, he was shocked, at the age of 29 he let his family on a mission to find out how to end suffering. He made the 8-fold path to end suffering. He fasted and meditated for 7 years and received "enlightenment." He began to spread his message around the world. Many people called him Buddha, which means "enlightened one."
Holy Roman Emperor, helped the Catholic Pope defeat invaders, very successful, created Trial by Ordeal, made people pay taxes with money only, made everyone convert to Christianity.
The group of people who invaded Rome on a mission to destroy Christianity.
Charlemagne - Lombards attacking Rome, Franks and Charlemagne saved Rome
Slav, viking, conquered Kiev and started Kievan Rus empire
Viking; probably the 1st European to reach North America.
Born in Mecca in 570 A.D., orphan and raised by his uncle, successful trader, became the head of a trading company, in 610 A.D. he had an encounter from God
Women in Islam
Men respected women, the woman's role was reduced to being a mother and a wife, had to wear burkas.
William the Conqueror
Helped change the government systems in Europe, Battle of Hastings, took control of all the land in England and only gave it to nobles who would swear loyalty to him, heavily taxed his people making himself very powerful.
Joan of Arc
A woman who had was told by God to lead the French to victory in war. She did but was captured by the English and was accused of being a witch so she was burned at the stake.
A Muslim leader who united many of the Muslim and Arab communities together, conquered Jerusalem in 1187
Cyril and Methodius
Brothers, missionaries, roman citizens, preached to the Slavs who did not have a written language. Cyril came up with an alphabet called Cyrillic and translated bibles into Cyrillic.
Francis of Assissi
was a Catholic priest who emphasized the positive message of Jesus and love of God through nature.
Richard the Lionhearted
Joined with Germany and France, France and Germany retreated but Richard kept going, was only able to win a few battles and was forced to sign a truce with Saladin, now know as "the lionhearted" for his relentless efforts
A group of Muslims that conquered Jerusalem in 1095 and participated in the other Crusades
He was manipulative and he would lure people into all of his traps. He was called the "universal spider" because he sent a letter to Switzerland telling them that Burgundy was planning a surprise attack on them. Then he stole some Burgundy uniforms and sent a couple of spies into Switzerland. Switzerland believes that the people Louis XI sent were spies from Burgundy and they began to prepare for a surprise attack on Burgundy. Burgundy was completely unaware of the attack and was easily beaten. Switzerland just left Burgundy and Louis XI easily conquered it.
Pope Urban II
Called a volunteer army of peasants, nobles, and knights to attack the Seljuk Turks and take back Jerusalem, writes a speech to encourage people to join the army
- Language - used for code in WWII
-Sand painting = healing ceremony
-Took three days
-Mexico City = Tenochtitlan
-Eagle with a snake in its mouth on a cactus
-Largest city in the Western Hemisphere
-Chinampas = Floating gardens
-Spanish conquered them
- Great Plains - Illinois
-Mound builders = graves
-Temples and palaces on top of the mounds
-Iroquois League = An alliance against the Europeans (failed)
-Yucatan = Mexico
-Losers would sometimes be sacrificed
-Only played to one, could take weeks
-Took religion very seriously
-Two worlds = Reality and the Ghost world
-365 day calendar
-20 digit based number system
-Created the concept of zero
-Phonetic and symbolic language
- New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, American Southwest
-Adobe = sun-dried clay bricks used to make houses
-Spanish thought it was a city of gold
-Maize = Corn
Role of Constaninople
A large city in Turkey. Capitol of the Eastern Orthodox Church. It was captured by Muslims
Jesus vs. Rome
Jesus rebelled against Rome by talking to women in the day and refusing to say the Caesar was a god. The Romans didn't like Jesus because they had to love their enemies, deny that the Caesar was a god, and they had to follow Jesus. Rome thought Jesus was trying to start a rebellion against the Roman government.
Arguments for Iconography
Good/contributed to worship, symbols of God's presence, use it to help pray, etc.
Arguments against Iconography
List 3 Slavic Countries
Serbia, Russia, Belarus
The most important trading center. Muslim place for commerce, and a holy city for Muslims.
Islam and Jesus
In Islam, Jesus was believed to be a great prophet but not the son of God.
5 Pillars of Islam
1. Faith - "There is not God, but God and Muhammad is his prophet."
2. Prayer - Muslims pray 5 times a day, always the same prayer, always kneeling down with their head on the ground facing Mecca.
3. Alms - Everyone should give to the poor.
4. Fasting - Occurs during Ramadan = celebrating Muhammad's first revelation from Allah.
5. Pilgrimage - Every Muslim at one point in their lives must make a pilgrimage to Mecca, know as a Hajj.
Judaism, Islam, Christianity
Purpose of Castles
For protection of the kings not for comfort and they are not luxurious.
Started by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, when the Catholics kick the Muslims and Jews out and forced all of Spain to convert to Catholicism.
Battle of Hastings
In 1066, William the Conqueror defeated the nobles of England and declared himself King.
a document that John I had to sign. It stated that people would get to have a trial by jury and ensured check and balances.
A form of government in which Lords would grant nobles a piece of land and a certain amount of peasants in exchange for military support and loyalty to the king.
Reasons why feudalism was bound to fail
No main ruler, no education, low social mobility, different money, entangling alliances, difficult to trade
Growth of Cities
Cities began to pop up right after the Crusades. People were in closer walking distance of their jobs and poetry, art, and literature began to thrive.
Growth of Middle Class
The middle class were able to pay their taxes but the king was help accountable for them because he couldn't just pay attention to the rich and not the other people who could pay their taxes.
Environmental/Geographic limits of Native Americans
Eskimos = nomadic, Aztecs = Chinampas