AP US History Unit 1

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Walter Raleigh

Founder of England's first American colony. (Roanoke, it failed)

Elizabeth I

English Queen during golden age. Reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada.

Treaty of Tordesillas

a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Pocahontas

a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown. Marriage to John Rolfe = first interracial union in america= Peace settlement ending the Anglo-Powhatan War

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

1588 by Elizabeth 1 of England, English naval supremacy.

john smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.

Jamestown

Founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London.elected Captain John Smith as their leader.

Thomas Dale

Made governor of Jamestown after John Smith, stern, didn't believe in laziness, created daily schedule

John Calvin

INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION: emphasized predestination and he rejected the medieval Church. he believed that the church and state should be united under the Calvinist faith

John Winthrop

Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, envisioned colony as a "city upon a hill" (covenant theology)

Peter Stuyvesant

The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (netherland?), hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.

Anne Hutchinson

A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Rode Island, killed by indians

King Phillips War

Started over land ownership disagreements. The War Between the Puritans and the Pequot, Narragansett,Wampanog, and Nipmunk indians. armed indians in raiding NE towns, eng & allies won, survivors fled N, increase indian hate

Roger Williams

He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.

Dominion of New england

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros) Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system.

New England Confederation

New England colonists (Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven, and Plymouth) formed this in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.

Patroonships

Vast estates along the Hudson River established by the Dutch. They had difficulty attracting peasant labor, and most were not successful.

William Penn

Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)

Jeremiads

Puritan preachers Taking their cue from the doom-saying Old Testament prophet Jeremiah, earnest preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety.Scared people off, decline of puritanism

Glorious Revolution 1688

Bloodless overthrow of King James II. established William and Mary as the new leaders.

Great Puritan Migration

Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. Eg 1630 group of puritans led by john winthrop found MA Bay Colony

Fundamental Orders

In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the firdst constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713, ended Queen Ann's War, transferred large areas of French territory in North America to English including Nova Scotia and Newfoundland

Bacon's Rebellion

Indentured servants in Virginia revolt against gov and landowners (origionally over lack of protection from indians on frontier). burn Jamestown. look to african slaves as less troublesome source of labor

Middle passage

the middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas

Salem witch trials

Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Terrible mistake, shows social tensions, decline of puritanism.

half way covenant

response to decline of puritanism. The puritan practice where by parents who had been baptized but had not yet experienced conversion could bring their children before the church and have them baptized.weakend distinction between "elect" and others- dramatizied the difficulty of maintainignreligious devotion

headright system

Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

Leisler's rebellion

uprising in late 17th century colonial New York, in which militia capitani seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain's "Glorious Revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored in 1691 by British troops sent by James' successor, William III.

Triangular Trade

Illegal trade created to generate money to buy english goods.The backbone of New England's economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.

First Great Awakening

1st grassroots american social movement.series of revivals making church more emotional. Old lights (against) new lights (for). results: democratic, new denominations (meth and bapt), more choice, colleges, old clergy looses prestige

George Whitefield

Most influentian new light speaker during first great awakening

Jonathon edwards

New light preatcher who started the first Great awakening

John Peter Zenger

"Zenger case", Newspaperman thrown in jail for accusing his colony's governor of wrongdoing, Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found innocent

Paxton Revolt

They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

Regulator Protests

???

Phyllis Wheatley

1st important African american writer. Abolitionists later point to her as proof that they are intellectually equal

William Pitt

The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.

Treaty of Paris 1763

Ended the French and Indian (7yrs) war. Britian dominated, French kicked out of N america

Pontiac's Rebellion

After French and Indian War, Indian chief gathered tribes in Ohio river valley to attack british forts. Squashed. Led to brit issuing proclamation of 1763

Proclamation of 1763

After 7yrs war and Pontiac's rebellion.A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

Samuel de Champlain

Cartographer, explorer, governor of New France, founder of Quebec. The major role Champlain played in the St Lawrence River area earned him the title of "father of New France."

Albany Congress

1754 congress between Iriquois and 7 colonies. Ensure continued Iriquoi loyalty to colonies (immediate) colonial unity (long termish)

Battle of Quebec

???

Mercantilism

economic theory, colonies exist for benefit of mother country, collect gold and silver, buy more goods that you sell

George Grenville

Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling. also tried to tax them

Sugar Act

1764. England needed more money because it went into debt from the Fr&Ind. war. taxed colonists. Justification was that it was them paying for protection. replaced the molasses act which placed 3 pence tax on each gallon of molasses

Quartering Act 1765

Revenge on Mass. for Boston Tea Party. Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.

Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans

Committees of Correspondence

Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

Quebec Act

1774 Same time as intolerable acts., designed to facilitate the incorporation of French Canadians into British America; Colonists feared a precedent had been established in the nonrepresentative government in Quebec; they resented the expansion of Quebec's territory, which they had been denied access by the Proclamation of 1763; they were offended by the Crown's recognition of Catholicism, since most Americans were Protestants

Samuel Adams

Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence

The Association

A document produced by the 1st Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered

Battles of Lexington and Concord

Initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston

virtual representation

british response to America's claim of "taxation without representation" said that each member of parliament represented all the british people

Olive Branch Petition

2nd contenential congress. Still pledge loyalty to King George III but are still asking Britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and British troops out of the colonies; George 3 didn't want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

John Hancock

Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Bunker Hill

strategic place overlooking Boston; on June 13, 1775 the Britians attacked, eventually winning with more supplies; Americans hold their ground and kill lots of british. After this Geroge III declares colonies in rebellion.

Benedict Arnold

Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. "no smaller heavenly body controls a larger one" "our duty to set up republican democracy" etc. Later wrote "the crisis"

George III

King of England during the American Revolution. Good man but bad king. wanted arbitrary power over colonies

Battle of Seratoga

British surrendered to Americans. Led to the Franco-American alliance

Chief Joseph Brant

Pro-British Mohawk leader that devastated New York and Pennsylvania frontiers in 1778. Led Inidian resistance against white settlement. Organized the northwestern Indians in an alliance.

Battle of Trenton

On Christmas, Washingtons soilders cross the Deleware at night and surprise Hessians. Americans win

Ben Franklin

A delegate from Pennsylvania and proposed the "Albany Plan of the Union" as a way to strengthen colonies.sent to france to get alliance (LOVED by people there), negotiated treaty of paris, part of constitutional convention etc.

Battle of Yorktown

Sept 1781. British (general Cornwallis) surrendered, ending the war

Treaty of Paris 1783

1783 Februrary 3; American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England. America very lucky

Land Ordinance of 1785

A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of public land in the West that was ceded by the states

Northwest Ordinance 1787

A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood

Shays' Rebellion

this farmer uprising (mini war) in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes

New Jersey Plan

At constitutional convention. Small state plan. Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.

Virginia Plan

"large state plan" at constitutional convention. Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population

Connecticut Plan

The Great Compromise; (proposed by Sherman of ct.) bicameral congress with equal representation in one house and proportional representation in the other house

Federalists

supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution. Mostly wealthy eg. Washington, Hamilton, Madison, Jay, Marshall

Anti-Federalists

opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states. usually poorer classes. Patric Henry, Adams, Lee, Mason, Clinton

The Federalist Papers

This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. (fed paper 10 on how the larger a republic the less likely it is to be dominated by one group)

Society of the Cincinnati

An exclusive order of military officers from revolution. like mini-aristocracy. Opposed by democrats strongly esp Jefferson (threatening new republic)

Charles Beard's: An economic interpretation of the constitution

Historians Mary and Charles Beard said the framers of the Constitution were chiefly motivated by their own economic interests in preserving their wealth and property.

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