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The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is

nitrogen

An essential amino acid

cannot be synthesized in the body if caloric intake is adequate

What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein?

pepsin

If a food does not contain the necessary amounts of a certain amino acid to meet a body need, that amino acid is referred to as a

limiting amino acid

When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is

stored as glycogen and/or fat

The chemical bond joining adjacent amino acids is called a(n) _____________ bond.

peptide

Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to

denaturation

Food proteins are used most efficiently when we

are consuming enough carbohydrates and fats to meet our kcalorie needs

Edema appears when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because

blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to the tissues

If a person does not eat enough carbohydrate to supply the glucose the body needs, which of the following will happen?

the liver will convert amino acids to glucose

The deficiency that vitamin D prevents

rickets

The deficiency that vitamin A prevents

blindness, xeropthalmia

The deficiency that folate prevents

neural tube defects

The deficiency that niacin prevents

pellagra

The deficiency that vitamin B12 prevents

pernicious anemia

The deficiency that thiamin prevents

beri beri

The deficiency that vitamin C prevents

scurvy

The best suited physiological function of vitamin C is

important to formation of connective tissues (collagen)

The best suited physiological function of vitamin D is

important to calcium metabolism

The best suited physiological function of vitamin B6 is

important to protein metabolism

The best suited physiological function of vitamin A is

required for normal vision

The best suited physiological function of vitamin K is

critical to blood clot formation

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?

water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic

this vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida

folate/folic acid

Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because

it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun

Vitamin E functions as a(n)

antioxidant

In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

kidneys

The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by

ion concentration

Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of

phosphate and potassium.

The body's need for water is approximately ____ milliliter(s) per kcalorie.

1

Minerals are classified in which way?

Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants

The mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is

phosphorus

The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by

absorption in the small intestine.

The best food source of iron is

liver

A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of

iodide

This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.

fluoride

Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism (break down) in our body?

liver

The General Guidelines for daily alcohol intake are (less than) _______ drink per day for men and ________ for women.

two;one

Which liver enzyme primarily degrades alcohol?

alcohol dehydronase

Which statement best explains drug potentiation (magnified effect of drug) when one drinks excessively while on certain medicines?

Both the medicine and alcohol rely on the MEOS to detoxify them and MEOS can't do both.

Which of the following is true about ethanol after it has been ingested?

Alcohol acts as a toxin in our body and the liver does it's best to get rid of it.

What is cirrhosis?

A progresssive scarring and fibrosis of the liver.

How much whiskey is considered one serving of alcohol?

1.5 ounces

Red wines may reduce heart disease when consumed in moderation.

True

There are two types of ADH. One is a hormone and the other is an enzyme. Both are associated with alcohol. Which of the following statements is true?

1.Alcohol dehydrogenase along with niacin (NAD) converts alcohol to acetaldehyde.
2.Antidiuretic Hormone controls the amount of fluid (water) reabsorbed by the kidneys and returns it to general circulation.
3.Alcohol is a potent inhibitor of Antidiuretic Hormone
4.The most significant amount of alcohol dehydrogenase is found in the liver.

The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is

direct calorimetry

The method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called

indirect calorimetry

When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for men warrants an obesity diagnosis.

24%

When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for women warrants an obesity diagnosis.

35%

Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields

the body mass index

Which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat?

body mass index

Android obesity is associated with a higher incidence of all the following except

skin cancer

Which of the following is not an acceptable goal for weight control programs?

5 pounds weight loss per week

A daily deficit of 500 kcalories should result in a weight loss of about how many pounds per week?

1

The body's set point has been suggested to be

a weight to which the body closely regulates

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