What was created instead of iron?
Who replaced Britain as Europe's industrial leader by 1914?
Across the globe, there were _____ _____ in exchange for manufactured goods.
Second industrial revolution created new jobs for _____ in service and white color areas.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Who wrote the Communist Manifesto?
The history of all hithero existing society is the history of class struggles.
Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
In the 19th century, who was the class struggle between?
Social Democratic Party
Largest political party in Germany by 1914.
Marxist revisionists rejected what?
In the 1870s, trade unions won the right to do what?
Population change in Britain in 1800
Population change in France and Germany in 1800
Population change in Eastern Europe in 1800
Population change in Britain in 1900
Population change in France in 1900
Population change in Germany in 1900
Population change in Eastern Europe in 1900
960,000- 6.5 million
Population change in London from 1800-1900
Movement from rural to urban areas, primarily for ______ reasons.
Real wages rose for urban workers after what year?
Assumed to be the only honorable career for most women
Birthrate dropped mostly because of ___ ____ but also abortion, infanticide, and abondonment
What year were women allowed to own property in Britain?
What year were women allowed to own property in Germany?
What year were women allowed to own property in France?
Early mexican revolutionary
Demanded land reforms in Latin America
Roosevelt and WIlson
Progressive reform movement under which two US presidents?
In what war in 1898 did the United States acquire Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines?
Liberal and Conservative
Two political parties in Britain by 1870s?
What political party was added in Britain by 1900?
universal manhood suffrage
France and Third Republic had what issue due to a Weak parlimentary system?
sectional differences and labor turmoil
What kept Italy weak?
Pan-German league fed anti-semitism due to what?
Government relied upon imperial decrees rather than pariliament
Westernizers and Slavophiles
Anarchist; responsible for assasination of Alexander II in 1881
legislative assembly in response to loss to Japan in 1905
Who waged an activist foreign policy after 1890 and dropped treaty with Russia in favor of Austria?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
France, Russia, Great Britain
Austria annexed Bosnia and Herezgovina in 1908--caused ____ wars.
Marie and Pierre Curie discovered ____ which is given off within atoms.
Who created the theory of relativity?
Who was responsible for psychoanalysis and the unconscious, instinctive, and irrational explained human behavior.
survival of the fittest
Jews were treated inferior--after enlightenment and french rev, jews gained legal equality
Spread of colonial rule
The motives for this was a need for raw materials and new markets and places for investment as a consequence of Industrial revolution
Britain took over _______ by Stamford raffles after 1800.
France took over what SE Asian nation?
US took over ____ After Span-Amer War of 1898
What system was controlled by Africans?
Decline of slave trade in 19th century for _____ reasons.
When did slavery end in US?
Imperalist shadow over the Nile due to the weakening of what rule?
Ottoman military officers who seized control of Egypt in 1805.
Created in 1869 by Ferdinand de Lesseps
To protect investment in Suez canal, Britain established informal _____ over Egypt in 1881.
WHo led a religious revolt in the Sudan?
Lead Bantu resistence to encroaching Europeans.
Christianity, commerce, civilization
David Livingstone's the 3 C's?
Western techonology including ____ gave Europeans advantage
1884- reduced military rivalry in Africa and divided up Africa
War scenario between Britain and France
1899-1902--> Diamonds and gold, Boers v. British
centralized administrative system
As far as colonialism, France tried to imposed a _______ ______ ______.
Britain tried to transform local aristocrats into what?
Benefits of British rule
honest and efficient gov, more educational opportunities, outlawed sati and reduced thugee, introduced more technology, improved health and sanitation conditions.
Local officials used the ______ tax collection system to worsen peasants?
What dynasty was at the height of its power in 1800?
British desire for Chinese ____ created a balance of payments problems
Solution to payment problems was to ship Indian ____ to China
Superiority of British arms and tactics, War with China and Britain
Treaty of Nanjing
result of opium war, opened five coastal ports and granted British extraterritorialty, China paid an indemnity and ceded Hong Kong to British
Hong Xiuquan, Chinese Christian, wanted to create a heavenly kingdom of supreme peace. Peasant unrest and decline in government services. captured Nanjing in 1853, rebellion put down in 1864.
Treaty of Tianjin
Treaty that meant more concessions of Qing
British and French capture what major Chinese city and burn summer palace?
Germany seizes what province in 1897?
China was defeated in what war over control of Korea?
One Hundred Days of Reform
In 1898, Kang Youwei and Emperor Guanxu established what reform?
Open Door Policy
John Hay, American secretary of state, advocated what policy that would protect Chinese territorial integrity and open Chinese markets to everyone?
North China peasant unrest fueled by drought, unemployment, foreign economic activities
Who formed the Revolutionary Alliance in 1905?
nationalism, democracy, and people's livelihood
Three people's principles
Revolution of 1911
Qing failed to meet challenges, Cixi died, Sun was in US, government called up General Yuan Shikai, he became president of Chinese Republic in 1912.
What caused a reduce size of peasant farm plots?
Benefits of western imperialism
Introduced modern means of transportation and production, brought China into global economic market
Harmful effects of western imperialism
West used CHina for raw materials and markets, distorting local economic development
Imperialism caused a decline in _____ and adoption of Western educational practice
Imperialism brought a decline in what traditional chinese practice?
Who ruled Japan since 1600?
Matthew C. Perry
Who arrived in Japan in 1853 and convinced Japan that they had to open up to Western nations for Trade?
Perry's _____ _____ convinced shogunate that they had no choice to trade
Treaty of Kangawa
This treaty and later the 1858 Treaty gave America access to Japanese ports and grated extraterritoriality
Enlightened Rule: emperor symathetic to modernization
elder statesmen that held key positions
Constitution of 1890
Democratic in form but depotic in practice: upper house appointed, lower house elected
national polity: Japanese system unique and based upon supreme authority of emperor
Land reform: farmers given land, had to pay high taxes
Obtained suzerainty over what islands from China?
WHat type of kingdom did Korea have that pressured Japan to trade?
Treaty of Shimonseki
Ended Sino-japanese war in 1894
This war shocked the world: Japan gained Lliadong peninsula in China as well as Southern Sakhalin and Kurile Islands, Machuria came under Japanese control
Symbolism, Dadaism, and Surrealism
Japanese culture was influenced by and adopted what three things?
legislative assembly created in Russia even though it was too late.
Took power in 1881 and attacked opponents fiercely in Russia
Dutch settlers in Africa who fought British.
Forced Madero from power in early 1900s
Traditional practice in India which was outlawed by Brits
Invented flying shuttle
What did Edmund Cartwright invent?
By 1910, whole neighborhoods were set up with this
Russians who sided with old Tsar system in early 1900s
Marx: All of history is ____ _____.
Inventor of seed drill
Improved steam engine many times
Collaboration with local elites while allowing local traditions to continue
Availability of Education _____ in the decades following Industrial revolution
Germany became strongest military and industrial power in Europe under _________.
True Marxists believe that change will only come through ______.
this rebellion united Hindus and Muslims against Brits