World History Ch. 19, 20, 21

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Steel

What was created instead of iron?

Germany

Who replaced Britain as Europe's industrial leader by 1914?

raw materials

Across the globe, there were _____ _____ in exchange for manufactured goods.

women

Second industrial revolution created new jobs for _____ in service and white color areas.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Who wrote the Communist Manifesto?

Marxist theory

The history of all hithero existing society is the history of class struggles.

Bourgeoisie and Proletariat

In the 19th century, who was the class struggle between?

Social Democratic Party

Largest political party in Germany by 1914.

revolutionary socialism

Marxist revisionists rejected what?

strike

In the 1870s, trade unions won the right to do what?

40%

Population change in Britain in 1800

25%

Population change in France and Germany in 1800

10%

Population change in Eastern Europe in 1800

80%

Population change in Britain in 1900

45%

Population change in France in 1900

60%

Population change in Germany in 1900

30%

Population change in Eastern Europe in 1900

960,000- 6.5 million

Population change in London from 1800-1900

economic

Movement from rural to urban areas, primarily for ______ reasons.

1870

Real wages rose for urban workers after what year?

marriage

Assumed to be the only honorable career for most women

birth control

Birthrate dropped mostly because of ___ ____ but also abortion, infanticide, and abondonment

1879

What year were women allowed to own property in Britain?

1900

What year were women allowed to own property in Germany?

1907

What year were women allowed to own property in France?

Francisco Madero

Early mexican revolutionary

Emilio Zapata

Demanded land reforms in Latin America

Roosevelt and WIlson

Progressive reform movement under which two US presidents?

Spanish-American War

In what war in 1898 did the United States acquire Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines?

Liberal and Conservative

Two political parties in Britain by 1870s?

Labour party

What political party was added in Britain by 1900?

universal manhood suffrage

France and Third Republic had what issue due to a Weak parlimentary system?

sectional differences and labor turmoil

What kept Italy weak?

Bismarck

German emperor

German nationalism

Pan-German league fed anti-semitism due to what?

Austria-Hungary

Government relied upon imperial decrees rather than pariliament

Westernizers and Slavophiles

Anarchist; responsible for assasination of Alexander II in 1881

Duma

legislative assembly in response to loss to Japan in 1905

William II

Who waged an activist foreign policy after 1890 and dropped treaty with Russia in favor of Austria?

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Triple ENtente

France, Russia, Great Britain

Balkan

Austria annexed Bosnia and Herezgovina in 1908--caused ____ wars.

radium

Marie and Pierre Curie discovered ____ which is given off within atoms.

Albert Einstein

Who created the theory of relativity?

Sigmaund Freud

Who was responsible for psychoanalysis and the unconscious, instinctive, and irrational explained human behavior.

Social Darwinism

survival of the fittest

Anti-semitism

Jews were treated inferior--after enlightenment and french rev, jews gained legal equality

Spread of colonial rule

The motives for this was a need for raw materials and new markets and places for investment as a consequence of Industrial revolution

Singapore

Britain took over _______ by Stamford raffles after 1800.

Vietnam

France took over what SE Asian nation?

Philippines

US took over ____ After Span-Amer War of 1898

Slave trade

What system was controlled by Africans?

moral

Decline of slave trade in 19th century for _____ reasons.

1863/Civil War

When did slavery end in US?

Turkish/Ottoman rule

Imperalist shadow over the Nile due to the weakening of what rule?

Muhammad Ali

Ottoman military officers who seized control of Egypt in 1805.

Suez canal

Created in 1869 by Ferdinand de Lesseps

protectorate

To protect investment in Suez canal, Britain established informal _____ over Egypt in 1881.

Mahdi

WHo led a religious revolt in the Sudan?

Shaku

Lead Bantu resistence to encroaching Europeans.

Christianity, commerce, civilization

David Livingstone's the 3 C's?

firearms

Western techonology including ____ gave Europeans advantage

Berlin conference

1884- reduced military rivalry in Africa and divided up Africa

Fashoda crisis

War scenario between Britain and France

Boer War

1899-1902--> Diamonds and gold, Boers v. British

centralized administrative system

As far as colonialism, France tried to imposed a _______ ______ ______.

British gentry

Britain tried to transform local aristocrats into what?

Benefits of British rule

honest and efficient gov, more educational opportunities, outlawed sati and reduced thugee, introduced more technology, improved health and sanitation conditions.

zamindar

Local officials used the ______ tax collection system to worsen peasants?

Qing Dynasty

What dynasty was at the height of its power in 1800?

tea

British desire for Chinese ____ created a balance of payments problems

opium

Solution to payment problems was to ship Indian ____ to China

Opium War

Superiority of British arms and tactics, War with China and Britain

Treaty of Nanjing

result of opium war, opened five coastal ports and granted British extraterritorialty, China paid an indemnity and ceded Hong Kong to British

Taiping Rebellion

Hong Xiuquan, Chinese Christian, wanted to create a heavenly kingdom of supreme peace. Peasant unrest and decline in government services. captured Nanjing in 1853, rebellion put down in 1864.

Treaty of Tianjin

Treaty that meant more concessions of Qing

Bejing

British and French capture what major Chinese city and burn summer palace?

Shandong

Germany seizes what province in 1897?

Sino-Japanese War

China was defeated in what war over control of Korea?

One Hundred Days of Reform

In 1898, Kang Youwei and Emperor Guanxu established what reform?

Open Door Policy

John Hay, American secretary of state, advocated what policy that would protect Chinese territorial integrity and open Chinese markets to everyone?

Boxer rebellion

North China peasant unrest fueled by drought, unemployment, foreign economic activities

Sun Yat-sen

Who formed the Revolutionary Alliance in 1905?

nationalism, democracy, and people's livelihood

Three people's principles

Revolution of 1911

Qing failed to meet challenges, Cixi died, Sun was in US, government called up General Yuan Shikai, he became president of Chinese Republic in 1912.

population increase

What caused a reduce size of peasant farm plots?

Benefits of western imperialism

Introduced modern means of transportation and production, brought China into global economic market

Harmful effects of western imperialism

West used CHina for raw materials and markets, distorting local economic development

Confucianism

Imperialism caused a decline in _____ and adoption of Western educational practice

foot-binding

Imperialism brought a decline in what traditional chinese practice?

Tokugawa Shogunate

Who ruled Japan since 1600?

Matthew C. Perry

Who arrived in Japan in 1853 and convinced Japan that they had to open up to Western nations for Trade?

black-guns

Perry's _____ _____ convinced shogunate that they had no choice to trade

Treaty of Kangawa

This treaty and later the 1858 Treaty gave America access to Japanese ports and grated extraterritoriality

Meiji

Enlightened Rule: emperor symathetic to modernization

Genro

elder statesmen that held key positions

Constitution of 1890

Democratic in form but depotic in practice: upper house appointed, lower house elected

Kokutai

national polity: Japanese system unique and based upon supreme authority of emperor

Meiji economics

Land reform: farmers given land, had to pay high taxes

Ryukyu Islands

Obtained suzerainty over what islands from China?

hermit kingdom

WHat type of kingdom did Korea have that pressured Japan to trade?

Treaty of Shimonseki

Ended Sino-japanese war in 1894

Russo-Japanese War

This war shocked the world: Japan gained Lliadong peninsula in China as well as Southern Sakhalin and Kurile Islands, Machuria came under Japanese control

Symbolism, Dadaism, and Surrealism

Japanese culture was influenced by and adopted what three things?

Duma

legislative assembly created in Russia even though it was too late.

Alexander III

Took power in 1881 and attacked opponents fiercely in Russia

Boers

Dutch settlers in Africa who fought British.

Zapata

Forced Madero from power in early 1900s

sati

Traditional practice in India which was outlawed by Brits

John Kay

Invented flying shuttle

power loom

What did Edmund Cartwright invent?

electricity

By 1910, whole neighborhoods were set up with this

Slavophiles

Russians who sided with old Tsar system in early 1900s

class struggles

Marx: All of history is ____ _____.

Jethro Tull

Inventor of seed drill

James Watt

Improved steam engine many times

Association

Collaboration with local elites while allowing local traditions to continue

increased

Availability of Education _____ in the decades following Industrial revolution

William II

Germany became strongest military and industrial power in Europe under _________.

revolution

True Marxists believe that change will only come through ______.

Sepoy

this rebellion united Hindus and Muslims against Brits

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