# Science Finals Vocab

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### Speed

The distance that an object travels per unit of time

### Average Speed

Calculated by dividing the total distance traveled by the total time of travel

### Displacement

The distance AND direction of an object's position from the starting point

### Velocity

Includes the speed of an object and its direction of motion.

### Acceleration

Occurs when an object changes its speed, its direction, or both

### Inertia

The tendency of an object to resist any change in motion

### Force

A push or pull that one body exerts on another

### Balanced Forces

Forces on a body that are equal in size and opposite in direction.

### Instantaneous Speed

The speed at any given point in time

### Friction

A force that opposes motion between two touching surfaces

### Weight

The gravitational force exerted on an object

### Momentum

The product of the mass of an object and its velocity

### Static Friction

Exists between two surfaces that are not moving past each other

### Gravity

Two masses exert an attractive force on each other

### Chemical Potential Energy

Energy stored in the chemical bonds between atoms

### Gravitational Potential Energy

Depends on the mass of the object, its height above ground and its acceleration due to gravity

### Joule

The SI unit of energy

### Kinetic Energy

Energy in the form of motion

### Mechanical Energy

Is the sum of the potential and kinetic energy in a system

### Elastic Potential Energy

Energy stored by something that can stretch or compress

### Resistance Force

Opposing the effort force

Wedge, screw

### Effort Force

The force applied to a machine

### Wheel and Axle

Gears are a modified form of this simple machine

### Simple Machine

A machine that does work with only one movement

### Inclined Plane

The wedge and screw are modified forms of this machine

### Efficiency

W(out) / W(in) X 100

### Lever

A bar that is free to pivot, or turn, around a fixed point

### Work

This is accomplished when a force acts through a distance

### Machine

A device that makes doing work easier

The number of times a machine multiplies the effort force

### Heat

Moves from areas of hot to areas of cold

### Convection

The transfer of energy in a fluid by the movement of heated particles

### Conduction

Heat transfer by touch

### Induction

Charging a material by bringing it close to a charged object

### Closed Circuit

An electrical circuit that has only one way to flow

### Heat Conductor

Allows for the easy flow of electrons

### Heat Engine

A device that converts heat energy into mechanical energy

### Temperature

A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a material

### Heat Mover

Air conditioner is an example

### Solar Energy

Energy from the sun

### Specific Heat

Water has a value of 4184[J/(kg K)]

Transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

### Conduction

Transfer of thermal energy by direct contact of particles

### Thermal Energy

Sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all of the molecules in an object.

### Electric Current

Produce by the flow of electrons through a material

### Insulator

A material that does NOT allow electrons to easily flow through it

### Resistance

Tendency of a material to oppose the flow of electrons through it

### Parallel Circuit

A type of circuit that has mor than one branch for current to flow

### Power

Equals current X voltage difference

### Voltage

The "push" that causes charges to move in a circuit

### Series Circuit

A circuit with only one path

### Transformer

Can be used to increase or decrease the voltage in an AC

### Electrical Generator

Converts mechanical energy into electrical energy

### Turbine

A large wheel that rotates when pushed by water, wind or steam

### Poles

Region where the magnetic force of a magnet is strongest

### Direct Current

Batteries produce this type of electron flow

### Galvanometer

Device that uses an electromagnet to measure electric current

### Electromagnetic Induction

A generation works based on this principle

### Alternating Current

Reverses direction of current flow in a regular way

### Electromagnet

Made of a soft iron core surrounded by loops of current-carrying wire

### Fossil Fuel

Examples include coal, petroleum and natural gas

### Petroleum

Cured oil that is highly flammable and is formed by decayed organisms

### Photovoltaic Cell

Converts light energy into electricity

### Non-Renewable

Energy source that cannot be replace as fast as it is used

### Biomass

Examples include organic matter such as wood and rice hulls

### Geothermal Energy

Thermal energy from the earth that can be used to generate electricity

### Hydroelectric

Electrical energy produced from the energy of moving water

### Constructive Interference

When two or more waves overlap and combine to form a new wave

### Diffraction

The bending of a wave as it changes speed when passing from one medium to another

### Wavelength

Measured from crest to crest or trough to trough on a transverse wave

### Medium

Matter that waves travel through

### Transverse

Matter moves back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels

### Longitudinal or Compressional

An example of this type of wave is sound

### Frequency

The number of wavelengths that pass a given point each second

### Rarefaction

The less dense region of a compressional wave

### Amplitude

Relates directly to the energy carried by a wave

### Sonar

Uses reflected underwater sound waves to detect objects

### Decibles

Units used to measure the intensity of a sound

### Doppler Effect

Change in pitch or wave frequency due to a moving wave source

### Acoustics

The study of sound

### Ultrasonic

Sound waves above the normal frequency range of human hearing

### Cochlea

Part of ear that converts sound waves into nerve impulses

### Resonator

Hollow chamber filled with air that amplifies vibrating sound waves

### Visible

The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that you can see

### Infrared

Type of energy used to produce thermograms

### Ultraviolet

The ozone layer above the Earth blocks much of this radiation

### Photon

Particles whose energy is dependent on the frequency of the light

### X-Ray

Often used in medicine to produce images of the human body

### Electromagnetic Spectrum

Composed of vibrating electrical and magnetic fields.

### Gamma

Very high energy, short wavelength wave that can damage cells

Short waves often used in communications

### Coherent Light

Light of only one wavelength that travels with its crests and troughs aligned

### Translucent

Allows some light to pass through, but you cannot see clearly through it

### Infrared

Produced when objects become so hot that they give off light

### Opaque

Does not allow any light to pass through it

### Pigment

Colored material that absorbs some colors and reflects others

### Concave or Diverging

Lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges

### Mirror

Flat, smooth surface that reflects and image

### Focal Length

Distance from center of lens or mirror to the point of focus

### Cornea

Transparent outer covering of the eye

### Real Image

Formed when light rays converge to form an image

### Optical Axis

Imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the surface of a mirror or lens at its center

### Retina

Part of the eye that converts light images into electrical signals

### Convex or Converging

Lens that is thicker in the middle than on the edges

### Convex Mirror

Reflects an image that is virtual, upright, and smaller than the object

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