Unit 11 Absolutism, The Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment

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Ms. Bain

Absolutism

A government in which one person has sole and complete control. Absolutism was used by Louis XIV and was a way to efficiently command the people but had negative effects by allowing one person to have utmost control and potentially abuse such power.

Divine Right

Confirmation of a ruler by God. Louis XIV believed he had the divine right to rule- he was catholic as well. The divine right was a less used, but still used occasionally, too justify power in the name of God.

Louis XIV

Absolute and greatest monarch of France from about 1643-1715. He consolidated all of his power by controlling nobles, promoting intendants, taxing heavily for wars, controlling the economy by Versailles and promoting colonies, revoked the edict of Nantes. and built the massive Palace of Versailles.

Cardinal Mazarin

Ended thirty's years war in 1648. Many French hated him because he increased taxes and strengthened central government. Died in 1622. There were many rebellions against him and the nobles lead these and ended up causing disorder and fighting. This resulted in a people that accepted absolute monarchs because they yearned for guidance.

Intendants

Government agents who collected taxes and administrated justice. Done by Louis because he wanted to decrease noble power.

Versailles

Louis palace that he made the nobles go there which increased louis power by making them completely dependent on him and took them away from home giving intendent more power.

Charles I

Always in war with Spain and France. Always wanted money from Parliament. Offended Puritans by upholding rituals of the Anglican Church.

English Civil War

It began with the conflict with against Parliament and King Charles. Puritans were supporters of Par. and Royalists supported the king.

Oliver Cromwell

Puritans found a general who could win the war. In 1647 they finally held the king and they Charles to trial for treason he was guilty and sentenced to death.

James II

Took throne after Charles. Offended subjects after practicing Catholicism. Not a lot of people didn't like him.

Glorious Revolution

Seven members of Parliament invited WIlliam and Mary to take over because of the sake of Protestans.

William of Orange and Mary

William was a prince of the Netherlands. Mary was protestant. When William led army into ENgland James fled.

Constitutional monarchy

Laws limited rulers power.

Bill of Rights of 1689

Limits to royal power. in 1689. No suspendign Parliaments laws. William and Mary made other restitrcitons on there power.

Scientific Revolution

Published works that challenged the thoughts of the Church.

Geocentric Theory

Earth centered view of the universe.

Heliocentric Theory

Copernicus theory about planets moving but ddin't fully explain it.

Copernicus

A scientist in the 1500s who challenged ideas about faith.

Galileo

Italian scientist who used/created the telescope to discover things such as Jupiter's 4 moons, sun spots, and the surface of the moon. He was persecuted by the Catholic church for being involved in science and by denying the geocentric theory despite being a devout catholic. He looked at the world in a reasonable way and analytically devised experiments to make a point.

Scientific Method

Copernicus, Keplar, and Galileo's approach to science and looking at it analytically developed the scientific method. It is a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. It starts as a problem/question-> hypothesis-> which is tested through data-> analysis and interpret. It is used today.

Descartes

(1596-1650) French inventor of analytical geometry which was used in scientific research. He used math to reject old assumptions and teachings. He said "I think, therefore I am: He influenced modern scientific methods today in which scientists use math to gain a better understanding of the world.

Newton

English scientists who studied math and physics. He discovered the law of gravity which states movement through mutual attraction. He believed in a clockworker god- deism. (1642-1727)

Jenner's smallpox vaccine

Edward Jenner (British physician) introduced this vaccine which implemented small amounts of small pox into you so you could learn to fight it off. He then realized that if you could fight off cowpox then you can fight off smallpox so instead this first vaccination included cowpox germs. This helped make Europeans less suceptible to disease.

The Enlightenment

Spurred by the Scientific Revolution that reevaluated aspects of society. It was a new intellectual movement stressing reason and though and individuals. AKA age of reason. Reached its height in mid-1700s and changed many aspects of Western Civilization.

Thomas Hobbes

An English philosopher who thought all humans were bad by nature and that an absolute monarchy was the only type of government capable of keeping law and order. Government was made ot protect people from their own selfishness.

Social Contract

Both Hobbes and Locke believed in a social contract. It is an agreement of the people to be governed. Hobbes believed that the people should hand over their government to a single ruler for efficiency and so that one person will make good decisions. They traded their rights for law and order. Locke believed that governments could only be formed with consent from the people.

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. His belief that government power comes from the consent of the people was a major factor in the creation of modern democracy. As well, his idea that citizens have the right to rebel if their government fails is an influence on modern thinking.

Natural rights

John Locke's believed that people were born with three natural rights: life, liberty, and property. These three things were the motive behind government, and had to be protected by government. These rights influenced our own Declaration of Independence which states "certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

Philosophes

The social critics of France in the mid 1700s whose name means philosophers in french. Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau are some famous of them. Their five main concepts include Reason, Nature, Happiness, Progress, and Liberty.

Voltaire

One of the most influential french philosophers. Voltaire was his pen-name because he often made fun of clergy, the aristocracy, and government. He was sent to prison twice and then banished to England for 2 years. He stood for in particular the freedom of religion and free speech. He said the famous quote, "I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it."

Montesquieu

A French philosopher whose ideal form of government was a limited monarchy and believed/instituted the separation of powers so that no branch could gain too much power and threaten liberty.

Separation of Powers

A Separation of the powers of the law (making, enforcing and interpreting) among three bodies government. Montesquieu introduced this idea based on England's government, but oversimplified how England was run in these three branches. His idea of power checking power would influence checks and balances in U.S. government.

Rousseau

French philosopher who believed that people were born equal and that society corrupts people. He thought that government should protect people's basic rights to life and his ideal form of government was a direct democracy in which the people had a large share of power. His ideas inspired some of the French Revolution.

Beccaria

Italian philosopher who believed laws exist to preserve social order and he often criticized the court system. He did not believe in capitol punishment and his effect is shown in criminal law reformers of Europe and North America.

Wollstonecraft

Women's rights advocator. Believed that women needed to be educated to be useful. She herself was self taught and a writer, and she believed that government was only significant if women had rights in it. She aided but did not influence an entire movement of change in the Enlightenment in favor of women.

Salons

a gathering of women that helped to spread Enlightenment ideas. This method both helped to spread the important ideas of the Enlightenment, but also gave women a time to be in power and discuss intellectual things such as philosophy.

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