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reticent

adj. Not revealing one's thoughts readily; reserved

deference

n. Respectful submission to the judgement, opinion, will, etc of another

apathetic

adj. having or showing little or no emotion

disparage

v. To regard or represent as being of little worth (the bully disparaged the nerd)

soporific

adj. Causing or tending to cause sleep

affable

adj. pleasantly easy to approach or talk to; friendly; polite

ameliorate

v. To make something better

obsidian

n. a volcanic glass similar to granite; formed from cooling lava

sagacious

adj. having acute mental discernment and keen practical sense; shrewd

raucous

adj. harsh loud noise; stringent; grating

odious

adj. extremely unpleasant; repulsive

cacophony

n. harsh discordance of sound; dissonance

raconteur

n. A person who tells anecdotes and stories in a skillful or amusing way

prosaic

adj. lacking poetic beauty; commonplace or dull

precarious

adj. Dependent on chance; uncertain

pariah

n. an outcast

expedite

v. To speed up the process of; hasten

catharsis

n. the process of releasing repressed emotions

pugnacious

adj. inclined to quarrel or fight readily (pugnacious punk)

nascent

adj. Beginning to exist or develop

vapid

adj. lacking or having lost life, sharpness, or flavor; insipid; flat

truncheon

n. The short, thick club carried by cops

engrossed

v. To be absorbed in completely

erudite

adj. Having or showing great knowledge or learning

scrupulous

adj. Diligent, thorough, and extremely attentive to detail

prattle

v. To talk in a foolish or simple-minded way; chatter; babble

quell

v. To suppress; out an end to; extinguish

exacting

adj. Making great demands on one's skill, attention, or other resources

Insipid

adj. without distinctive, interesting, or stimulating qualities; vapid

diffident

adj. modest or shy because of a lack of self confidence

antiquated

adj. antique; old fashioned or outdated

misanthrope

n. someone who hates mankind

querulous

adj. full of complaints/complaining

fatuity

adj. silly and pointless

loquacious

adj. Tending to talk a great deal; talkative

derision

n. ridicule; mockery

consort

n. a husband or wife; spouse, esp. Of a reigning monarch

penitent

adj. repentant; Feeling or showing sorrow for having done wrong

voluble

adj. Characterized by a ready and continuous flow of words; fluent; talkative

enkindle

v. Set on fire; arouse or inspire

novel

adj. of a new kind; different from anything seen before

quandary

n. a state or perplexity or uncertainty about what to do

arrested

v. To the attract the attention of someone

benign

adj. Gentle, kindly; not harmful

perdition

n. hell; damnation

volition

n. the power of using one's will

presumptuous

adj. (of a person or their behavior) failing to observe the limits of what is permitted or appropriate

stratagem

n. a plan, scheme, or trick for surprising or deceiving an opponent

consonance

repetition of consonant sounds found anywhere inside words; ex. Pitter patter

rhyme

similar sounds of words; end rhyme- rhyme at the end of a line, internal rhyme- rhyme within the line, true rhyme- actual rhyme, slant rhyme- forces the rhyme (doesn't perfectly rhyme), masculine- one syllable rhyme, feminine- 2 syllable rhyme, triple- 3 syllable rhyme

theme

the central topic or idea of a literary work; ex: a possible theme of the Road is that goodness exists in a world filled with evil

onomatopoeia

words used to mimic sounds; ex: moo, buzz, zap etc

apostrophe

when the speaker of a poem addresses or refers to someone outside of the poem; ex: Emily Dickinson often uses apostrophes in her poems to reference death

synecdoche

part of something that refers to the whole; ex: "get your butt over here" means they want you, and not just your butt

allusion

a reference in a literary work to a popular work of literature, art, music etc; A Raisin in the Sun is an allusion to the poem, "A Dream Deferred" by Langston Huges

alliteration

repetition of initial consonant sounds; ex: the big bad bee buzzed

assonance

repetition of vowel sounds; ex: to, you, true, truth etc (words with similar vowel sounds)

enjambment

the breaking of a sentence into 2 lines; ex: "In a station of the Metro" uses this to split the sentence into two lines

hyperbole

an extreme exaggeration used to create an effect; ex: saying that "everybody" watches a show, when this is not true

imagery

the use of descriptive words in order to create an image in the reader's mind that makes use of his senses; ex: Stopping by Woods on a Snowy evening creates an image of being out in the forest on a winter night.

personification

giving human characteristics to non-human things; ex: The animals in Madagascar are personified to think and act like humans

blank verse

poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter; ex: "Birches" by Robert Frost is written in blank verse

masculine rhyme

1 syllable of rhyme; the word doesn't have to be 1 syllable

feminine rhyme

2 syllables of rhyme; word doesn't have to be 2 syllable

tone

an author's attitude toward a piece of writing; the tone of "The Love song of J. Alfred Prufrock" is sad and worried

realism

movement that focuses on showing life as it is as faithfully and accurately as possible; ex: "Incident at Owl Creek Bridge" used realism to show the harsh realities of war

naturalism

offshoot of realism, sought to portray ordinary people's lives but suggested that environment, heredity, and chance determined people's faith; ex: "To Build a Fire" is a naturalist poem.

transcendentalism

movement that shows inherent goodness and importance of both man and nature, but also shows the importance of God; ex: Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were Transcendentalist poets

imagism

poetic movement that wanted hard expression with concrete images and everyday speech. It featured the creation of images in poems; ex: Poets like Ezra Pound and E.E. Cummings were imagist poets

modernism

movement where authors sought to capture the essence of modern life in both the form and content of their work; T.S. Elliot was a modernist poet

gothic style

characterized by the story set in bleak or remote aces, the plot involving macabre or violent incidents, characters in torment, and/or supernatural events; ex: Edgar Allen Poe was know for being a gothic style writer.

epithet

a word or phrase applied to a person to describe an actual or attributed quality; ex: saying that a dog is man's best friend

dialect

a form of language spoken in a particular area or by members of a particular social class or group. distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation; ex. Mark Twain used the dialect of every day speech in his stories.

free verse

poetry without a consistent meter pattern or rhyme; ex: Walt Whitman often wrote free verse poetry

mood

a person's emotions and reaction to a story; ex: a person's mood towards "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" could be sympathetic or annoyed

stanza

a poetic paragraph; 2 lines- couplet, 3 lines- tercet, 4 lines- quatrain, 5- cinquain, 6- sestet, 7- septet, 8- octave

symbolism

the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities; ex: the American flag is a symbol for freedom

parallelism

similar grammatical structure. shown by repeated format of words, phrases, subordinate clauses, or sentences; ex: used in the Declaration of Independence

internal conflict

conflict that occurs within the mind of a character; ex: in "To Build a Fire," the main character has an internal conflict of whether to give up or continue

external conflict

conflict that occurs between a character and some outside force; ex: in "To Build a Fire," the main character has an external conflict between his body and nature

3rd person omniscient

3rd person point of view where the narrator knows and sees everything, including thoughts of the characters; ex: "To Build a Fire" uses this narration style

3rd person limited

a 3rd person point of view where the narrator knows the inner thoughts and feelings of a single character; "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" uses this at certain points to show the main character's thought

3rd person objective

a 3rd person point of view where actions are shown without knowing the thoughts of the characters; "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" uses this at certain points to show the action without revealing the thoughts of the characters

Irony

a contrast between what is stated and meant, or between what is expected and what actually happens

dramatic irony

the type of irony that occurs when readers are aware of something that a character in a literary work doesn't know; ex: Romeo and Juliet uses this when they think they can be together but the audience knows they never can.

situational irony

the type of irony where the outcome of a situation is very different than what is expected; ex: a man who steps out of the way to avoid a sprinkler and falls into a pool

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