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genes

segments of DNA on a chromosome

46

number of chromosomes human body cells have

23

number of chromosomes each parent cell (sperm or egg) contributes

homologous

chromosomes that make up a pair (one chromosome from each parent that codes for a trait)

gametes

sex cells

meiosis

reduction-division process that forms gametes; involved in genetic variation in organisms

interphase

cells carry out various metabolic processes including the replication of DNA and the synthesis of proteins

anaphase I

homologous chromosomes separate and migrate toward opposite poles

prophase I

synapsis occurs and crossing over can happen between homologous chromosomes

metaphase I

pairs of homologous chromosomes line up at the center of the cell and spindle fibers attach to the centromere of homologous chromosomes

anaphase II

sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite poles

4 unidentical cells

the end result of meiosis

2 sets of divisions

meiosis

asexual reproduction

organism inherits all of its chromosomes from a single parent

crossing over

exchange of genetic material in chromosomes which causes genetic variation in meiosis

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