Module #2 Test Study Guide

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Study guide for test # 2 of the S/R Bio class. Terms/Answers taken straight from textbook, this time. ;)

Pathogen

An organism that causes disease

Saprophyte

An organism that feeds on dead matter

Parasite

An organism that feeds on a living host

Aerobic Organism

An organism that requires oxygen

Anaerobic Organism

An organism that does not require oxygen

Steady State

A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born

Exponential Growth

Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population

Logistic Growth

Population growth that is controlled by limited resources

Conjugation

A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer

Plasmid

A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code

Transformation

The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell

Transduction

The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another

Endospore

The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers

Strains

Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits

Plasma Membrane

The surface underneath the bacterium's cell wall

Cytoplasm

A semifluid substance inside the plasma membrane

Fimbriae

Fibrous bristles that are typically used for grasping surfaces or other bacteria

Cell Wall

The surface inside the cell wall; The surface that holds the contents of the bacterium together, regulates the amount of water that the bacterium can absorb, and holds the cell into one of three basic shapes

Capsule

An outer surface that surrounds the cell wall; Only some bacteria have it

Flagellum

Part of bacteria that allows it to move from one place to another

Ribosomes

Non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis

What is the most popular means by which bacteria obtain food?

Relying on dead organisms for food

If a bacterium in parasitic, is it heterotrophic or autotrophic?

Heterotrophic

List the basic steps in asexual reproduction among bacteria.

DNA loop is attached to a point on the membrane, the DNA is copied, the cell elongates, new cell wall material and plasma membrane begin to grow, the bacteria separates into two different bacterium.

A sample of food is dehydrated, which kills all of the bacteria. However, in a few days, bacteria-free water is added to the food in a bacteria-free environment. Nevertheless, microscopic investigations indicate that bacteria are in the food. How did the bacteria get there?

Through asexual reproduction of living bacterium.

What kind of growth does a population of bacteria experience when just a few of them are placed in an environment rich with resources?

Exponential growth.

A population of bacteria experiences logistic growth. What can you say about its resources of their environment?

The resources are limited in the environment

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