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this is from the exam study guide Ms. Geesey gave the class

the substances that undergo change in a chemical reaction are called

reactants

the arrow in a chemical equation means

forms, produces, yields

in a compound, chemical energy is contained in the

bonds

the total amount of energy before and after a chemical reaction is the same. Thus energy is

conserved

a student dissolved equal amounts of salt in equal amounts of warm water, room-temperature water, and ice water. what is true about this?

the salt dissolves most quickly in warm water

Some properties of an acid are

changes the color of an indicator, taste sour, usually reacts with metals

Examples of acidic foods:

lime, tomato, orange

what are some properties of a base?

feels slippery, tastes bitter, changes colors of indicators

A passenger in the rear seat of a car moving at a steady speed is at rest relative to

the front seat of the car

Speed is the ratio of the distance an object moves to

the amount if time needed to travel the distance

the slope of a line on a distance-time graph is

speed

a horizontal line on a distance-time graph means the object is

at rest

the rate at which velocity changes is called

accelaration

example of a change in motion that produces acceleration

a moving at a constant speed around a circular track

The slope of a speed-time graph indicates

accelaration

The SI unit of force is the

newton

When an unbalanced force acts on an object

the object accelerates

When a pair of balanced forces acts on an object, the net force that results is

equal to zero

the property of matter that resists changes in motion is called

inertia

An orange might roll off your cafeteria tray when you stop suddenly because of

the orange's inertia

your weight equals your

mass times the acceleration due to gravity

Newton's third law of motion describes

action and reaction forces

What is the reaction force and its reaction force

they are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction

Work is the transfer of

energy

What is transferred by a force moving an object through a distance?

energy

The energy of motion is called

kinetic energy

An object's gravitational energy is related to:

its height relative to a reference level, it mass, the acceleration due to gravity

Examples of an object with elastic potential energy:

a wind up toy that has been wound up, a compressed basketball, a stretched rubber band

Why is the gravitational potential energy of an object 1 meter above the moon's surface less than its potential energy 1 meter above Earth's surface?

the objects weight is more on the moon

the gravitational potential energy of an object is always measured relative to the

reference level from which the hieght is measured

When an object becomes warmer, this increases.

Thermal energy

The energy stored in gasoline is,

Chemical energy

Nuclear power plants are designed to convert nuclear energy into what type of energy?

electrical energy

Solar cells convert what type of energy into electrical energy?

electromagnetic energy

According to the law of conservation of energy:

energy cannot be created, energy cannot be destroyed, energy can be converted from one form to another

the mechanical energy of an object equals its

kinetic energy plus its potential energy

cellular telephones utilize

microwaves

At the top of its arc, a thrown ball has_____ potential

maximum

As a dropped penny falls toward the ground, ______ energy is converted to ______ energy

potential, kinetic

Example of mechanical energy?

potential energy

The primary source of the sun's energy is

nuclear fusion

The gravitational potential energy depends on

the mass of the object, the height, the acceleration due to gravity

The color that an object appears to be Whdepends on the

wavelengths of visible light that reaches your eyes

What device uses sound waves to view organs inside the body

sonogram

An apple appears red to your eye because it

reflects red light

the statement that in chemical reactions, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products is the law of ______.

conservation of mass.

An iron fence is unpainted, and it reacts and combines with the oxygen in the air, forming rust. The formation of rust is an example of an _____ reaction.

synthesis/ chemical

For a certain chemical reaction, the reactants contain 385 kJ of chemical energy, and the products contain 366kJ of chemical energy. In order for energy to be conserved, 19kJ of energy must be_____.

released (heat)

reactions such as cooking that result in products with more chemical energy than the reactants are ____.

endothermic

Chemical equations must be ____ to show that matter is conserved during the reaction.

balanced

the physical properties of a solution that differ from those of its solute and solvent include freezing point, boiling point, and _____.

conductivity

Stirring ____ the rate at which a solid will dissolve in a liquid.

increases

The motion of an object looks different to observers in different ___ _ _____.

points of reference

The SI unit for measuring ____ is the meter

distance

speed is measured in units of

meters per second

The difference between speed and velocity is that velocity indicates the ______ of motion and speed does not.

direction

The acceleration of a moving object is calculated by dividing the changes in _____ by the time over which the change occurs

velocity

A push or pull is an example of

force

The sum of all forces acting on an object is called the

net force

If the forces acting on an object produce a net force of zero, the forces are called _____ _____

balanced forces

The tendency of an object to resist change in it's motion is called ____.

inertia

During a head-on auto collision, ____ causes a passenger in the front seat to continue moving ______.

inertia, forward

The acceleration of an object us equal to the net ___ acting on the object divided by the object's ____.

force, mass

The force of gravity acting on an object is the object's ____.

weight

If a gold ball and bowling ball are rolling at the same speed, the ____ ball has greater momentum.

bowling

When you push on a wall, the ___ pushes back on you

wall

energy and work are measured on th SI unit called the ____.

joules

If the ___ of an object doubles, its kinetic energy doubles.

mass

Energy that is stored due to position or shape is called ____ energy.

potential

When a pole-vaulter flexes the pole, the pole-vaulter increases the pole's ___ potential energy.

elastic

You can calculate an object's gravitational potential energy by using the equation ______.

PE=mass x gravity x height

The sum of the kinetic energy ad potential energy of an object is called its _____ energy.

mechanical

Wind turbines convert ____ energy into electrical energy

kenetic

"energy cannot be created or destroyed" is a statement of the law of ______ __ ________

conservation of energy

When an apple falls from a tree to the ground, the apple's beginning kinetic energy and ending potential potential energy are both equal ____.

zero

The electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths are _____ rays. The waves with the longest wavelengths are ____ waves.

gamma, radio

the formula for calculating kinetic energy can be written as _______.

KE= .5m x vsquared

The stored energy resulting from the relative positions of objects in a system is called ______.

potential

The electromagnetic waves with the highest energy are classified as _____ ____

gamma rays

_______ are used for cooking as well as for communication

microwaves

An ____ sensor can be used to measure the heat that objects radiate

infrared

White light from the sun actually contains all the visible wavelengths of the __________ _________.

electromagnetic spectrum

Radio waves, microwaves, and infrared waves make up part of the ________ _______.

electromagnetic spectrum

the sum of an object's kinetic and potential energies.

mechanical energy

energy due to motion

kinetic energy

the energy of an objects due to its position, shape, or condition

potential energy

energy that lies at then level of atoms and that does not affect the motion on a large scale

nonmechanical energy

EM waves that give off heat

infrared waves

EM waves that can carry telecommunication signals and cook food

microwaves

EM waves with high energy that can cause sunburn

ultraviolet rays

electromagnetic waves used in medicine to kill cancer cells and view bones

X-rays and gamma rays

EM waves used for television, AM, and FM radio signals

radio waves

EM waves used to determine the location of objects in a room

visible light

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