animal nutrition

Created by taytay0531 

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nutrition

food being taken in, broken down and absorbed

herbivores

eat mainly plants and algae

carnivores

eat mainly other animals

omnivores

eat both animals and plants/algae

an animals diet must satisfy what 3 nutritional needs?

chemical energy
organic building blocks
essential nutrients

essential nutrients

materials that an animals cells require but cannot synthesize

4 classes of essential nutrients

amino acids
fatty acids
vitamins
minerals

vitamins

organic molecules that have diverse functions and are required in very small amounts by the body

minerals

inorganic nutrients such as iron and sulfur that are usually required in very small amounts.

malnutrition

condition that results from a diet that lacks one or more essential nutrients

insufficient intake of essential nutrients can cause

deformities
disease
death

under-nutrition

diet that fails to provide adequate sources of chemical energy

epidemiology

study of human health and disease

3 main stages of food processing

ingestion-act of feeding or eating
digestion-food processing
elimination-excretion of unused material

absorption

the take up of small molecules by an animals cells

food vacuoles

cellular organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that break down food

gastrovascular cavity

digestive compartment with just a single opening that functions to both digest and distribute nutrients throughout the body

4 main feeding mechanisms in animals

suspension/filter feeders (oysters/humpback whale)
substrate feeders (leaf miner)
fluid feeders (mosquito)
bulk feeders (humans)

peristalsis

alternating waves of contraction and relaxation that move food through the alimentary canal

sphincters

ring-like valves at some junctions between compartments of the digestive system

oral cavity

mouth or initial location of food intake

salivary glands

produce fluid/saliva that helps food move along the digestive system

amylase

enzyme found in saliva that hydrolyzes starch

mucus

a viscous mixture of water, salts, cells, and glycoproteins called mucins

bolus

ball of chewed food

pharynx/throat cavity opens what 2 passages?

esophagus
trachea (windpipe)

esophagus

connects the throat to the stomach

epiglottis

flap of cartilage that covers the trachea when food passes by enroute to the stomach

larynx

upper part of the respiratory tract

stomach

located just below the diaphragm, stores food and begins digestion of proteins

gastric juice

digestive fluid of the stomach that consists of hydrochloric acid and pepsin

chyme

mixture of ingested food and digestive juice

protease

protein digesting enzyme

pepsin

protease of gastric juice

pepsinogen

inactive form of pepsin

how does HCl convert pepsinogen to active pepsin?

by clipping off a small portion of the molecule and exposing its active site

duodenum

first 25 centimeters of the small intestine where chime mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and intestinal gland cells

pancreas

important organ that excretes digestive juices and insulin

bile

mixture of substances made by the liver that digest fats and other lipids in the small intestine

gallbladder

organ where bile is concentrated and stored

jejunum and ileum

food continues to get broken down and stored

villi

finger like projections of the small intestine

microvilli

microscopic projections on villi

transport across the epithelial cells of the small intestine can be

active
passive

hepatic portal vein

blood vessel that leads directly to the liver

chylomicrons

water soluble globules coated with phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins that circulate in the blood

lacteal

vessel at the core of each villus

colon

1.5 meter long portion of one arm of the T shape which leads to the rectum and anus. major function is to recover water from the lumen if additional water is needed by the body somewhere

cecum

other arm of the long intestine that is important for fermenting ingested materials

feces

wastes of the digestive system

dentition

animals assortment of teeth

hoatzin

herbivorous bird with an esophageal pouch that houses microorganisms that break down cellulose

ruminants

deer, sheep, cattle, that have highly evolved mutualistic adaptations with multiple microorganisms

enteric division

branch of the nervous system dedicated to the digestive organs which regulates events as well as peristalsis in the small and large intestine

endocrine system plays critical role in digestion by doing what?

secreting the right proteins/enzymes at the right place and time

overnourishment

consumption of more calories than the body needs often resulting in obesity

obesity contributes to health problems including:

diabetes
cancer
heart attacks
strokes

leptin

key hormone in the appetite signaling pathway

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