Biology Part 1/3

Created by Karalynny 

Upgrade to
remove ads

26 terms

physiology

the study of the function of the body in living things.

Cytology

the study of cells.

Prokaryotic Cells

do not have a nuclear membrane or a membrane surrounding their intracellular organelles.

Eukaryotic Cells

have nuclear membranes surrounding the cell and intracellular organelles.

Cell membrane

composed mainly of a double layer of lipids (hydrophobic, water hating, molecules) and phosphorus molecules (hydrophilic, water loving) that surround and protect the cell and serve as a "gatekeeper" by letting various substances in or out.

Nucleus

A cell's ________ is separated from the cell's cytoplasm by a double membrane that protects the cell's DNA from molecules that could harm it.

cytoplasm

a gel-like substance that fills most cells and serves to surround and protect organelles.

chloroplast

an organelle in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that performs the process of photosynthesis in order to create energy for the cell.

Plastids

structures within plant and eukaryotic algae cells that store chlorophyll (product necessary for photosynthesis) so it can be used by chloroplasts.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

the transportation network within a cell containing attached protein-generating ribosomes.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

the cell's transportation system that does not have attached ribosomes.

Lysosomes

membrane-bound organelles that contain destructive enzymes and carry out digestive functions within the cell.

Golgi apparatus

an organelle involved in the synthesis, manufacture, storage, and distribution of various macromolecules including hormones and enzyme materials.

Peroxisomes

are organelles within a cell that work to manufacture, store, and secrete various oxidation enzymes needed to rid the cell of toxic substances.

Vacuoles

are spaces in a cell that serve to remove unwanted wastes and water from the cell and also can function as a storage space for chemicals and compounds.

centriole

is a barrel shaped microtubule structure within an animal cell that is very important in cell reproduction.

Chromosomes

are cellular structures that contain genes, which interact in order to influence/determine hereditary information within cells.

Homeostasis

the property of cells to regulate their internal environment in order to maintain balance or working equilibrium.

Active transport

a method by which materials (biochemicals, molecular substances, etc.) move across membranes; this process requires a cell to use energy in order to move the materials "uphill" against a gradient.

endocytosis

cells absorb substances from outside the cell by engulfing the material within its membrane.

Phagocytosis

a type of endocytosis in which a cell's membrane envelops particles and takes them in to form phagosomes (food vacuoles).

Interphase

the phase of the cell cycle (mitosis) in which a cell grows through protein synthesis and oxidation reactions in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, DNA replication occurs.

Prophase

the phase of cellular division (mitosis) involving the shortening and thickening of chromatids, replicated strands of DNA making up a chromosome, dissolving of the nuclear membrane and disappearance of the nucleoli, and formation of spindle fibers (microtubules).

Metaphase

the phase of cellular division in which the centromeres of the chromosomes align along the equator (middle) of the cell's spindle and the chromosome pairs attach to the spindle at the centromere, a specialized region of the chromosome.

anaphase

During the __________ of cellular division, sister chromatids are pulled apart into single-stranded chromosomes, which migrate to opposite ends of the cell.

telophase

The _________ of cellular division involves the uncoiling of chromosomes and the reappearance of the nucleoli and the nuclear membrane around each set of sister chromosomes.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set