Medieval Europe, Middle Ages History

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Final exam with Mr. McKee

Middle Ages

When Europeans started to restore order

Clovis

1st king of the Franks, united Frank tribes into one kingdom

Merovingians

sons and successors of Clovis, ruled France for 200 years

charles martel

charles the hammer, Frank military and political leader, Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingians.

*****Won battle of Tours defeating an invading Moorish army.
********Halted Islamic expansion in Western Europe.

Carolingians

Frankish noble family

from Charles Martel

Rulers of Franks after Merovingians after a long rise to power

Charlemagne came from this family

Charlemagne

A Carolingian

Charles the Great

Emperor of Holy Roman Empire

Reunited fractured West Europe under one empire after decline of Roman empire giving Europe a common identity

Sword and Cross (used military and church to unite and control

Raised a declining life style of people

Focused on raising citizens standard of living

Revival of art, religion, and culture through the Catholic Church

Magyars

Nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian

Vikings

Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, & pirates who raided Europe, Asia and North Atlantic islands.

Germanic people

Long boats sailed rivers so they traveled and raided successfully

Struck terror in Europe. Settled in Europe.

Feudalism

legal and military customs in medieval europe 9th century to 15th century

holding land in exchange for service or labor

nobility, clerics, peasantry

fief

fee. land given for services to the ruler

vassal

mutual agreement with a lord to provide military support or protection for privileges or land

primogenitre

right, by law, or custom for 1st born to inherit an entire estate

Monasticism

monks lived in communities called monasteries, and nuns in convents

way of life for monks and nuns (rules and how they lived)

Manolrialism

shaped economy of europe during middle ages

giving legal and economic power to the Lord of a Manor. This Lord received payments (labor or service usually) from the peasants working his land.

serf

peasants (servants)

could not leave Lord of the Manor (landlord) without permission from the Lord

chivalry

code of conduct for knights
bravery, courtesy, honor, gallantry

cardinals

most powerful members of the curia, a group of counselors to the Catholic Church pope

princes of the church (very powerful)

abbot or abbess

elected head of the community in a Benectine Rule
controlled and distributed property

male or female leader

Canon law

Catholic church laws and courts

interdict

Church court order against an entire region. All the churchs would be closed and their clergy could not do church rituals. Thus giving all these people risk of eternal punishment by God.

heretics

people who denied the truth of the church's beliefs or preached against them.

tithe

church power to tax people 1/10th of their income

simony

buy high position within the church organization

St. Benedict

Set up a monestary in Monte Cassino, Italy. He created these monestary rules that many followed in monestaries and covenants throughout europe

Hildegard of Bengen

wrote religious music and medical text
vocal critic of corrupt church practices
made a saint

St. Patrick

brought Christianity to Ireland

St. Augustine

lead monks to England and thus brought Christianity to England

inquisition

church ordered Dominicans (monks) to search for heretics.

shires

governmental district in England, divided up kingdoms

common law

based upon customs and judges decisions rather than written codes of law

Alfred the Great

came to throne of Wessex, began driving the Danes (vikings and rulers) from England

Edward the Confessor

Anglo Saxon nobles chose him as their new king as the Danish kings died out. He had no heir.

William the Conqueror

Duke of Normandy, a distant relative of Edward, claimed the throne. The Anglo Saxons wanted Harold of Wessex ( brother in law) to be king instead.

Came across the channel with many Norman knights and fought the battle of Hastings. He won and became King of England. He brought Norman ways and language to England.

England began to combine Norman (French) and Anglo Saxon (German) cultures and language.

More power to the king not the nobles. Brought the feudal system.

Had a survey done of all shires and set up a central tax system. This survey was called the Domesday Book

Henry II

Increased royal authority. Nobles could pay a fee rather than provide services to the king. Henry could then build up his own paid army loyal to him.

Legal system grew with trial by jury added. Gave more power to legal courts than church courts.

Thomas Becket

archbishop of Cantebury. Refused his clergy to be tried in Royal Courts. He and Henry were friends but became enemies over this. He was murdered by the king's knights.

He was made a saint and Henry lost some power over this.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Henry II wife. She and her sons plotted against Henry II. Her French lands brought war with France into England.

Magna Carta

protected liberties of nobles and limit king's power. Provided a limited outline of rights for England's ordinary people.

Made law the supreme power of England not the king.

Cornerstone of constitutional government and rule by law.

Otto I

Feudal lords elected him to become king.

developed a strong kingdom in Germany

helped Pope John XII with some Roman nobles, so he was given Northern Italy to add to his kingdom.

It was the Holy Roman Empire and was very powerful 700 years.

Henry III

The height of imperial power.

He chose popes thus putting the church under his power.

Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII

England king fought powerful pope over who had the most power: kings or popes

church vs state rule

King wanted to appoint church leaders...Pope said no and excommunicated Henry.

King lost power and asked for the pope's forgiveness.

Frederick Barbarossa

Ruled Germany. Tried to get control of Italy. Took over Milan.

The pope helped form the Lombard League and they kicked him out of Italy.

Innocent III

strongest of medieval popes
strengthen church and increased its worldly power

believed in supreme earthly power of church and kings were subject to the church

he got involved in conflicts all over europe

used interdict's to control kings, they paid to have them removed.

controlled italy

overthrew kings and put rulers of his choice on thrones

Oversaw 4th crusade

Seljuq turks

Muslim people from central Asia gain control over Palestine (Holy Land to Christians)

Then attacked Asia Minor or Byzantine empire

Threatened to attack Constantinople, emperor asked pope for help.

Christian pilgrims reported being persecuted in Palestine by the Turks.

Urban II

The pope that the Constantinople emperor asked for help.

He began the crusades asking all feudal lords to join in the fight to regain Palestine.

crusades

military expeditions to regain the Holy Land
10,000 europeans participated
sewed crosses on their clothes

appealed to love of adventure and promise of spiritual and material rewards

Saladin

gained control of Jerusalem during the 3rd crusade
a truce was arrived at to allow Christians to enter Jerusalem freely

Children of crusades

several thousand young people from france and germany went on another crusade after the 4th. they were ill prepared and were tricked into going on ships and becoming slaves.

Results of crusades

palestine became muslim

europeans discovered new ways to wage war

fewer lords and so kings got more power so ending feudalism

Christian church more powerful

Increased trade between Italy and Asia

Europeans came back with new ideas and products

barter economy

goods and services exchanged for goods and services

domestic system

manufacturing (making goods) took place in people's homes rather than shops or factories

market economy

land, labor and capital are controlled by individual persons

merchant guild

had right to trade in a town. merchants grouped together to help each other do well.

other merchants had to pay a fee to trade in a town where they were not members of a guild

craft guild

skilled workers came together to make a guild
set rules for wages, work hours, work conditions
set standards of quality
controlled training of new skilled workers

apprentice

craft guild training, step 1
paid a master worker to train a child
5-9 years of training

journeyman

step 2 in craft guild training
skilled worker paid by his master

middle class

class between nobles and peasants or unskilled workers

black death

deadly plague
in europe and mediterranean
carried from china by trade routes
carried by flea infested rats
1/3 of europe died 25 mill. people
spread fast

changed europe:
faith in God shaken
church lost power
workers were in short supply so now demanded higher wages
peasants staged uprisings
upper classes lost more power

vernacular languages

language people with little education spoke
common language not Latin
so english, german, spanish, italian

troubadours

traveling singers
wrote love poems

Dante Alighieri

vernacular literature reached it height in the middle ages with his writings

wrote in Tuscan vernacular language...which lead to this form of Italian becoming Italy's language

father of Italian language

Divine Comedy his most famous....pointed out faults in Italian society

Geoffrey Chaucer

His most famous English novel...Canterbury Tales
pokes fun at English society especially the clergy
Gave middle English great literary prestige

Thomas Aquinas

greatest philosopher of middle ages
used Artistole's and Arab thinkers ideas
wrote a rational proof of God
bring faith and reason together--scholasticism

gothic

new church architecture
tall ceilings and spires
high and thin
large stained glass windows

cities were built around these huge churches
trade was done around and in the churches

highest artist skills where put on these buildings

hundred years war

England and France fought over control of France
England lost all possessions in France
England lost power and France now became powerful

use of new weapons....long bow, could shot a long way

gun powder and cannons used

knightly fighting ended

House of commons gained power and king lost power

War of the Roses

war for Englands throne began after 100 yr war
Between York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose) families

Lancasters won

Henry Tudor

Lancaster king after war of roses
married a york woman so united 2 families

set up a strong monarchy in england again

Joan of Arc

helped crown the king of france and then the french backed the king and drove the english out

god spoke to her and told her to lead the french to victory over english

french were inspired by her

caught and burned at stake by english

Louis XI

made french monarchy much stronger
harsh but efficient government
high taxes
untied france as a country
reduce power of lords

Ferdinand

Spain became a nation under him
took power away from church courts and nobles
ordered all jews and moors to become christians or leave

many left and with them left many leaders in industry and trade

Isabella

wife of ferdinand (of aragon)
brought country of castile

Habsburg

family that had a member become emperor of switzerland

weak kingdom with little land but used the royalty name to marry other royalty

this lead to the family gaining control of austria and lands around central europe

continued to become a powerful family
added the netherlands, luxembourg, and burgundy.

married in a spanish royal family and gained large spanis and italian holdings

eventually become most powerful family in europe

could not reunite the holy roman empire

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