change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
sailed on a 5 yr voyage to survey and chart world oceans; Darwin while a passenger collected samples of organisms that founded his theory of evolution
a group of islands in the Pacific off South America; owned by Ecuador; known for unusual animal life where Darwin found the fiches that led him to the theory of evolution
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do; a theory to explain the mechanism of evolution
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
Survival of the Fittest
organisms that are most adapted to their environment survive
the formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another
the formation of new species in populations that live in teh same geographic ares
The study of genetic changes in populations; the science of microevolutionary changes in populations.
a comprehensive theory of evolution that incorporates genetics and includes most of Darwin's ideas, focusing on populations as the fundamental units of evolution.
consists of all genes, including all the different alleles, that are present in a population
evolutionary change below the species level; cahnge in teh allele frequencies in a population over generations
Hardy Weinberg Equillibrium
the allele frequencies in a population tend to remain the same from generation to generation unless acted upon by outside influences
change in the gene pool of a population due to chance
Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, this smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool isn't reflective of the source population
movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared to homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in gene pools.
contribution that an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation compared to the contributions of other individuals
marked differences between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females
a scientist who studies fossils to learn about organisms that lived long ago
chronological collection of life's remains in sedimentary rock layers
layers of sedimentary rock
dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants
The comparison of body structures and how they vary among species
structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues
structures found in different types of organisms that are similar in function or outward appearance but dissimilar in basic structure or embryological development
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
the study of the formation, early growth, and development of different organisms
the branch of biology that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life (and especially with their genetic role)
formation of new species