HISTORY 102 - FINAL EXAM VOCAB-CD

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HISTORY VOCABULARY

Realpolitik

POLITICAL STRATEGY BASED ON ADVANCING POWER FOR ITS OWN SAKE.

Risorgimento

the italian nationalistic movement, which its goal of liberation and unification. secret societies had to form because nationalists could not support their cause openly. this term is the italian word for 'resurgence'.

Otto von Bismarck

Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)

Count Camillo Cavour

Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.

Opium Wars

WAR FOUGHT BETWEEN THE BRITISH AND QING CHINA TO PROTECT BRITISH TRADE IN OPIUM; RESULTED IN THE CEDING OF HONG KONG TO THE BRITISH.

Scramble for Africa

Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)

Sepoy Mutiny (Sepoy Rebellion)

AN UNFREE PEASANT LABORER. UNLIKE SLAVES, SERFS ARE "ATTACHED" TO THE LAND THEY WORK, AND ARE NOT SUPPOSED TO BE SOLD APART FROM THAT LAND.

Spanish-American War

WAR BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND SPAIN IN CUBA, PUERTO RICO, AND THE PHILIPPINES. IT ENDED WITH A TREATY IN WHICH THE UNITED STATES TOOK OVER THE PHILIPPINES, GUAM AND PUERTO RICO; CUBA WON PARTIAL INDEPENDENCE.

Imperialism

the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.

Friedrich Nietzsche

A German philosopher who believed that the strength that produces heroes and great artists springs from something beyond reason. He criticized Christianity and democracy for empowering the mediocrity of the sheeplike masses.

Dreyfus Affair

THE 1894 FRENCH SCANDAL SURROUNDING ACCUSATIONS THAT A JEWISH CAPTAIN, ALFRED DREYFUS WAS SENTENCED TO SOLITARY CONFINEMENT FOR LIFE. HOWEVER, AFTER PUBLIC OUTCRY, IT WAS REVEALED THAT THE TRIAL DOCUMENTS WERE FORGERIES, AND DREYFUS WAS PARDONED AFTER A SECOND TRIAL IN 1899. IN 1906 HE WAS FULLY EXONERATED AND REINSTATED IN THE ARMY. THE AFFAIR REVEALED THE DEPTHS OF POPULAR ANTI-SEMITISM IN FRANCE.

Gallipoli

IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR, A COMBINED FORCE OF FRENCH, BRITISH, AUSTRALIAN, AND NEW ZEALAND TROOPS TRIED TO INVADE THE GALLIPOLI PENINSULA, IN THE FIRST LARGE SCALE AMPHIBIOUS ATTACK IN HISTORY, AND SEIZE IT FROM THE TURKS. AFTER SEVEN MONTHS OF FIGHTING, THE ALLIES HAD LOST 200,000 SOLDIERS. DEFEATED THEY WITHDREW.

Count Alfred von Schlieffen

Chief of the German general staff from 1891 to 1906. He outlined Germany's war plan by defeating the French and standing on the defensive against Russia all in a six week period.

Franz Ferdinand

archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I

Lenin

founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.

Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Bolsheviks

FORMER MEMBERS OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY WHO ADVOCATED THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CAPITALIST POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS AND STARTED THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. IN 1918 THE BOLSHEVIKS CHANGED THEIR NAME TO THE RUSSIAN COMMUNISTY PARTY. PROMINENT BOLSHEVIKS INCLUDED VLADMIR LENIN AND JOSEF STALIN. LEON TROTSKY JOINED THE BOLSHEVIKS LATE BUT BECAME A PROMINENT LEADER IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION.

Benito Mussolini

THE ITALIAN FOUNDER OF THE FASCIST PARTY WHO CAME TO POWER IN ITALY IN 1922 AND ALLIED HIMSELF WITH HITLER AND THE NAZIS DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

Fascism

THE DOCTRINE FOUNDED BY BENITO MUSSOLINI, WHICH EMPHASIZEDTHREE MAIN IDEAS: STATISM, NATIONALISM, AND MILITARISM. ITS NAME DERIVES FROM THE LATIN WORD FACES, A SYMBOL OF ROMAN IMPERIAL POWER ADOPTED BY MUSSOLINI.

Adolf Hitler

THE AUTHOR OF MEIN KAMPF AND LEADER OF NAZIS WHO BECAME CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY IN 1933. HITLER AND HIS NAZI REGIME STARTED THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND ORCHESTRATED THE SYSTEMATIC MURDER OF OVER 5 MILLION JEWS.

Weimar Republic

THE GOVERNMENT OF GERMANY BETWEEN 1919 AND THE RISE OF THE HITLER AND THE NAZI PARTY.

Great Depression

GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS FOLLOWING THE U.S. STOCK MARKET CRASH ON OCT. 29, 1929, AND ENDING THE ONSET OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

Blitzkrieg

THE GERMAN 'LIGHTNING WAR" STRATEGY USED DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR; THE GERMANS INVADED POLAND, FRANCE, RUSSIA, AND OTHER COUNTRIES WITH FAST-MOVING AND WELL COORDINATED ATTACKS USING AIRCRAFT, TANKS, AND OTHER ARMORED VEHICLES, FOLLOWED BY INFANTRY.

Operation Barbarossa

THE CODENAME FOR HITLERS INVASION OF THE SOVIET UNION IN 1941.

Holocaust

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Appeasement

THE POLICY PURSUED BY WESTERN GOVERNMENTS IN THE FACE OF GERMAN, ITALIAN, AND JAPANESE AGGRESSION LEADING UP TO THE SECOND WORLD WAR. THE POLICY, WHICH ATTEMPTED TO ACCOMMODATE AND NEGOTIATE PEACE WITH THE AGGRESSIVE NATIONS, WAS BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT ANOTHER GLOBAL WAR LIKE THE FIRST WORLD WAR WAS UNIMAGINABLE, A BELIEF THAT GERMANY AND ITS ALLIES HAD BEEN MISTREATED BY THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES, AND A FEAR THAT FASCIST GERMANY AND ITS ALLIES PROTECTED THE WEST FROM THE SPREAD OF SOVIET COMMUNISM.

Iron Curtain

TERM COINED BY WINSTON-CHURCHILL IN 1946 TO REFER TO THE BORDERS OF EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS THAT LAY WITHIN THE ZONE OF SOVIET CONTROL.

Nikita Khrushchev

LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION DURING THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, KHRUSHEV CAME TO POWER AFTER STALIN'S DEATH IN 1953. HIS REFORMS AND CRITICISMS OF THE EXCESSES OF THE STALIN REGIME LED TO HIS FALL FROM POWER IN 1964.

Ho Chi Minh

1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable

Marshall Plan

ECONOMIC AID PACKAGE GIVEN TO EUROPE BY THE UNITED STATES AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR TO PROMOTE RECONSTRUCTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TO SECURE THE COUNTRIES FROM A FEARED COMMUNIST TAKEOVER.

Cuban Missile Crisis

DIPLOMATIC STANDOFF BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOVIET UNION THAT WAS PROVOKED BY THE SOVIET UNION'S ATTEMPT TO BASE NUCLEAR MISSILES IN CUBA; IT BOUGHT THE WORLD CLOSER TO NUCLEAR WAR THAN EVER BEFORE OR SINCE.

Nelson Mandela

THE SOUTH AFRICAN OPPONENT OF APARTHEID WHO LED THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS AND WAS IMPRISONED FROM 1962-1990. AFTER HIS RELEASE FROM PRISON, HE WORKED WITH PRIME MINISTER FREDERIK WILLEM DE KLERK TO ESTABLISH MAJORITY RULE. MANDELA BECAME THE FIRST BLACK PRESIDENT OF SOUTH AFRICA IN 1994.

Rwanda

tensions between the two major ethnic groups, the tutsi and the hutu, exploded into violence. in 1994, an estimated 200.000 or more people, mainly tutsi, had died in massacres. an estimated 2 million tutsi and hutu fled to refugee camps in neighboring zaire and other countries.

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