exists when an indicator measures what we think it measures.
researching in which social phenomena of interest are defined and described.
research that describes or identifies the impact of social policies and programs.
seeks to identify causes and effects of social phenomena and to predict how one phenomenon will change or very in response to variation in another phenomenon.
the premature jumping to conclusions or arguing on the basis of invalid assumptions.
Selective (inaccurate) observation
choosing to look only at things that are in line with our preferences or beliefs.
seeks to open new areas of inquiry, especially by understanding what meanings preople give to situations.
occurs when we unjustifiable conclude that what is true for some cases is true for all cases.
the state that exists when statements or conclusions about empirical reality are correct.
Causal (internal) validity
this type of validity exists when a conclusion that A leads to, or results in B is correct.
exists when a conclusions holds true for the population group, setting or event that we say it does given the conditions that we specify; it is the extent to which a study can inform us about persons, places or event that were not directly studied.
exists when a conclusions based on a sample or subset of a larger population holds true for that population.
Cross population generalizability (external validity)
exists when findings about one group, population or setting hold true for other, populations or settings.
the use of scientific method to investigate individuals, societies and social processes; the knowledge produced by these investigation.
a set of logical, systematic documented method for investigating nature and natural processes; the knowledge produced by these investigations.
Resistance to change
the reluctance to change our ideas in light of new information.