Ch 6 Chemistry (Pearson)

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Ch 6 The Periodic Table

periodic law

the law that states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements

metal

any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc.; found to the left of the zig zag line on Periodic Table

nonmetal

an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity; found to the right of the zig zag line on the Periodic Table

metalloid

an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals; found along the zig zag line on the Periodic Table

alkali metals

the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium)

alkaline earth metals

An element in Group 2 of the periodic table

atomic radius

size of the atom from center to edge; increases from top to bottom and decreases from left to right on the Periodic Table

halogens

the elements of Group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine)

noble gas

an element in group 18 of the periodic table

representative elements

Elements from groups 1, 2, and 13-18 in the modern periodic table, possessing a wide range of chemical and physical properties; Outermost s or p sublevel is only partially filled.

transition metals

elements in groups 3 - 12 in the periodic table, all of which are metals; they form colored compounds in solution

inner transition metals

an element in the lanthanide or actinide series; the highest occupied s sublevel and nearby f sublevel of its atoms generally contain electrons

atomic radius

one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together

ionization energy

the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom

electronegativity

a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons

period

a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

family

Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table; also called a group

group

Vertical column of elements in the periodic table; also called a family

valence electron

an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties

ion

an atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge

cation

an ion with a positive charge produced by the loss of one or more electrons

anion

ion with a negative charge produced by gaining one or more electrons

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