Biology 101 Ch 3

Created by RobertRossMartin 

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Molecules of cells

What are the Properties of Carbon Based Life
Molecules?

Elemental carbon has 6 protons; 6 neutrons; and 6
electrons. This makes carbon uniquely well suited
to be the atom of life on earth.

Organic molecules contain carbon that is covalently bonded to what other atoms

Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen

Hydrocarbon

Carbon chain or ring molecules that contain mostly carbon and hydrogen. Skeleton or Backbone

Isomers

Two molecules with the same chemical formula but different shapes

Functional Groups

Bonded carbon with other groups of molecules

Monomers

Smaller building block molecules

Polymers

Larger units made of monomers

Macromolecules

Giant molecules made from polymers

4 Categories of Macromolecules

Carbohyrdates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids

Carbohydrates

Polymers made of sugar monomers (often glucose)

Lipids

Made of two different monomers, Fatty acids and glycerol

Proteins

Polymers made of Amino Acid monomers

Nucleic Acids

Polymers made of Nucleotied Monomers

Dehydration synthesis

Way of linking monomers together- removal of water

Hydrolysis

Way of separating monomers - Breaking by adding water

Monosaccharides

Building block of carbohydrates - Each glucose monomer

Characteristics of sugars

They all have carbonyl group and hydroxyl group

Fructose

Another Monosaccharide

Disaccharides

Two monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis

Glucose + fructose =

Sucrose (table sugar)

Hydrophobic

insoluble in water (lipids)

Hydrophillic

Water loving (carbohydrates)

Glycerol

Symmetrical and therefore non-polar

Fatty acids

Long chains of mostly carbon and hydrogen.

Triglycerides

Lipids that have 3 identical fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule

Phosholipids

Have glycerol backbone with one or more fatty acid chains and one or more chains with phosphorous.

Omega 3 Fatty acids

Crucial role in brain function

Steroids

Lipids with 4 ring forms attached to glycerol backbone - 3 are 6 cornered rings

Peptide bond

Bond between 2 amino acids

Polypeptide

Molecule consisting of many amino acids peptide bonded to each other

Examples of Proteins

Enzymes, hair, nails, claws, beaks, hooves, hemoglobin, antibodies

Protein Properties

*Amino acid sequence
*Shape of the macromolecule
*Presence of more than one Chain
*Addition of any inorganic molecules

Hierarchy of Protein Structure

*Primary Structure
*Secondary Structure
*Tertiary Structure
*Quaternary Structure

Primary structure of Proteins

Amino Acid (AA) sequence

Secondary structure of Proteins

Coiling or folding of AA sequence

Tertiary Structure of Proteins

Three dimensional shape of AA sequence

Quaternary structure of Proteins

Relationship of multiple chains

Nucleic Acid

DNA
RNA

Nucleotides

Monomer units of nucleic acids

Linked by dehydration synthesis

Nitrogenous Bases

Adenine
Thymine (only in DNA)
Cytosine
Guanine
Uracil (Only in RNA)

"Upright" part of DNA

made of Phosphate covalently bonded to sugar

"Inside of Helix" part of DNA

Hydrogen bonded

Adenosin Triphosphate (ATP)

Organic nucleotide that is unstable

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