the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
Little Rock 9
incident in which troops (sent by president Eisenhower) helped integrate a high school by allowing nine black students to enter school peacefully and not be prevented by angry mobs.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
NAACP; CORE; SCLC; Nation of Islam
Organizations founded to fight for racial equality
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)
Unity League of California
registerd Mexican American Voters, promoted candidates who would represent Meixican Americans
American Indian Movement
led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre
United States feminist who founded a national organization for women (born in 1921)
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
National Organization of Women
(1966) org. formed to work for economic and legal rights of women. acted from the liberal tenet that women and men are alike in important respects and, therefore, entitled to equal rights and opportunities. extremely effective in enacting rhetorical strategies that have brought about concrete changes in laws and policies that enlarge women's opportunities and protect their rights
Equal Employment Opportunity Act
strengthened laws protecting workers from discrimination on the basis of gender, enthnicity, or other aspects of identity
Title IX of Educational Amendments Act
any college that receives govt money must provide equal opportunity for females and males in academics, extra curricular, and athletics
Education of All Handicapped Children Act
ensures that all children have access to an appropriate education and related services to meet their unique needs
Americans With Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
House Un-American Activities Committee
established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty in the US
1940 act which made it illegal to speak of or advocate overthrowing the U.S. government. Was used by Truman 11 times to prosecute suspected Communists
Loyalty Review Board
effort to control possible communist influence in US gov: boards to investigate "security risks" working for gov- some employees released for affiliation with unacceptable political organizations/ sexual orientation
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Julius and Ethel Roseberg
A couple who was accused of being communist spies
unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)
The Crucible by Arthur Miller
book written about the Salem witch hunts
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
Eisenhower's policy; it advocated the full use of American nuclear weapons to counteract even a Soviet ground attack in Europe
a competition between nations to have the most powerful armaments
the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
In which the Russians shot down a high altitude US spy plane over the Soviet Union; this incident exposed a secret US tactic for gaining information.
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
Bay of Pigs Invasion
failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
This gave the president authority to take "all neccessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States."
War Powers Act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
• during the 1970's when Nixon was trying to get on good terms with China he sent a trade of ping pong players to compete against the Chinese ping pong players. By becoming friends with the Chinese Nixon was able to work out foreign affairs that other presidents could not handle.
a limitation on the size and armament of the armed forces of a country
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
July 1963 all powers except France and China agree to stop testing in atmosphere, space and underwater
the first treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
the second treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
United States after WWI returned to normalcy with rapid economic expansion, high spending
young woman in the 1920s who rebelled against traditional ways of thinking and acting
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
Scopes "Monkey Trial"
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
coolidge cut regulations on business and named business leaders as head of government agencies. as american income rose people bought more products. this also started the idea of installment buying
Caused by an increase in purchasing power, this allowed for customers to spend more money on goods.
Installment Purchase Plan
a system for paying for goods by installment
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
Buying on Margin
Purching stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
Hoover's Rugged Individualism
his plan to end the great depression
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
the act of reducing something unpleasant (as pain or annoyance)
closing of banks for four days during the Great Depression
the phase in which unemployment begins to decrease, demand for goods and services increases, and GDP begins to rise again
a change for the better as a result of correcting abuses
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
FDR's Court-Packing Plan
Franklin Roosevelt asked Congress to permit the President to increase the number of judges from 9-15 if the judges refused to retire after the age of 70, it never became a law because it was a threat to the separation of powers
Commodore Perry in Japan
Commodore Perry's goals in Japan were to force Japan out of it's period of isolation so that ultimately it could trade.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Remember the Maine
A slogan of the Spanish-American war referring to the sinking of a battleship in Cuba. Stirred up by yellow journalism, this lead McKinley to declare war.
Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico
US Defeat of Spain gets America new territory (4)
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
diplomacy influenced by economic considerations
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
German Submarine Warfare
U-Boats, New weapon, strained the guidelines of international law. Germany announced submarine campaign in Febuary 1915, and declared unrestricted submarine warfare against all armed ships.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico
the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in WWI
a period of general fear of communists
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Sacco and Vanzetti
were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
Wilson's 14 Points
Woodrow Wilson's plan for post-war peace: no secret treaties; freedom of the seas; removal of economic barriers; reduction of arms; adjust colonial claims
Senate Refusal to Ratify the Treaty of Versailles
They refused to ratify it because it went against our policy of isolationism
Washington Naval Conference
1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
"Return to Normalcy"
Warren G. Harding's campaign slogan to take the country back to life before WWI
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Trials of the Nazi leaders, showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime
Tokyo War Trials
The trial in which America punished the Japanese leaders for the rape of Nanking. 7 out of the 25 leaders were executed.
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
American's had to limit their use of gas so that there would be more for the war
Rosie the Riveter
symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
Executive order 9066
2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices; also known as Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)
the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.