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Terms for End of Year Exam

Conservation of Mass

matter cannot be created or destroyed

Mass

the amount of matter in an object

Element

any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

Reactant

element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction

Product

a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

Chemical Reaction

(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others, the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances

Balancing

To have an equal amount of atoms on each side of the equation

Subscripts

gives the number of atoms of the element in the compound

Coefficients

small whole numbers that are placed in front of the formulas in an equation in order to balance it

Polyatomic ions

ions that are made of more than one atom

Metals

One of a class of elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be ductile, malleable, and shiny

Metal Activity Series

a ranking of relative reactivity of metals in displacement and other kinds of reactions

Reactive

participating readily in reactions

Electrons

negatively charged particles

Ionic Bonds

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

Oxidation

the process of oxidizing, The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.

Reduction

any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen), Gain of electrons

Redox

a reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction

Half Reactions

the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction

OIL RIG

Oxidation is loss, Reduction is gain

Electrochemical Cell

device that changes chemical energy into electrical energy

Battery

a device that produces electricity

Electrical Circuit

an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow

Solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

Ion

a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)

Anion

a negatively charged ion

Cation

a positively charged ion

Conduction

the transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system, caused by a temperature difference between the parts.

Charged

Describes an object whose net charge is not zero

Dissolved

state in which solute particles are evenly distributed throughout a solvent

Concentration

the strength of a solution

Zinc/Copper Battery

Used to perform in a single replacement reaction, conducting electricity.

Salt Bridge

A tube that allows the slow transfer of ions and maintains the neutrality of the electrolyte solutions.

Closed Circuit

a complete electrical circuit around which current flows or a signal circulates

Non-rechargeable battery

A battery that cannot be charged

Anode

a positively charged electrode by which electrons leave an electrical device

Cathode

a negatively charged electrode that is the source of electrons in an electrical device

Ideal Gas

a hypothetical gas with molecules of negligible size that exert no intermolecular forces

Inverse Relationship

a relationship in which one variable decreases when another variable increases

Direct Relationship

a relationship in which one variable increases with an increase in another variable

Intermolecular Forces

forces of attraction between molecules

Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gases

1. atoms move in a straight line
2. atoms rebound with the same amount of energy
3. there are no attractice forces between atoms
4. atoms are so tiny
5. temperature increases; atoms move faster

kPa

kilopascals

mmHg

millimeters of mercury

Standard Temperature and Pressure

for a gas, the temperature of 0 Celsius and pressure 1.00 atmosphere

Atmosphere

the envelope of gases surrounding any celestial body

Kinetic Energy

energy due to motion

Boyle's Law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.

Charles Law

the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases

Volume

the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object

Liter

Basic unit of volume in the metric system

Milliliter

a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter

Temperature

the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)

Celsius

Metric unit for measuring temperature; On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100.

Kelvin

the basic unit of thermodynamic temperature adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites

Gay-Lussac's Law

the law that states that the pressure of a gas at a constant volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature

Pressure

the force applied to a unit area of surface

Force

(physics) the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity

Constant

a quantity that does not vary

Solubility

the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)

Acid

any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt

[H+]

hydrogen

Hydrogen Ion Concentration

the number of moles of hydrogen ions per cubic decimeter

Base

any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

OH-

hydroxide ion

Hydroxyl Group

A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.

Dissociate

to undergo a reversible or temporary breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms

Solution Concentration

quantity of solute dissolved in a specific quantity of solvent or solution

Molarity

concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent

pH

a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

-log[H+]

the formula for pH

Exponent

a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself

Properties of Acids and Bases

react with one another to produce a salt and water, conduct electricity, change color of indicator

Neutralize

make chemically neutral

Buffer

an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH

Hydrological Cycle

cycle of water, the movement of water and its transformation between the gaseous (vapour), liquid, and solid forms.

Non-polar Bond

electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity

Ionic Bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion

Polar Bond

A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.

Advection

(meteorology) the horizontal transfer of heat or other atmospheric properties

Condense

compress or concentrate

Condensation

The change of state from a gas to a liquid

Precipitate

fall from clouds

Precipitation

the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)

Salt Water

water that contains dissolved salts and other minerals

Fresh Water

defined as having a low salt concentration (less than 1%). Plants and animals are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e., ocean). There are different types of freshwater regions: ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, and estuaries.

Aquifer

underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc

Ground water

underground water that is held in the soil and in previous rocks

Glacier

an extended mass of ice formed from snow falling and accumulating over the years and moving very slowly, either descending from high mountains, as in valley glaciers, or moving outward from centers of accumulation, as in continental glaciers

Natural Minerals

inorganic, with characteristic physical properties

Electronegativity

(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond

Cohesive

sticking together

Adhesive

a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a specified amount of a substance by 1°C or 1 K.

Density

the amount of matter in a given space

Solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

Solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

Soluble

(of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)

Fertilizers

A substance spread onto soil to increase its ability to support crops. Fertilizers include organic materials, such as manure, but can also be man made chemicals such as nitrates.

EPA

an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment

Maximum Contaminant Levels

The legal maximum amount of a certain contaminant that is allowed in tap and drinking water.

Percent Concentration By Mass

mass of solute\mass of solution x 100

Composite

made up of different substances or parts

Alloy

a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten

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