(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others, the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
small whole numbers that are placed in front of the formulas in an equation in order to balance it
One of a class of elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be ductile, malleable, and shiny
Metal Activity Series
a ranking of relative reactivity of metals in displacement and other kinds of reactions
the process of oxidizing, The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen), Gain of electrons
a reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction
the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction
the transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system, caused by a temperature difference between the parts.
A tube that allows the slow transfer of ions and maintains the neutrality of the electrolyte solutions.
a relationship in which one variable increases with an increase in another variable
Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gases
1. atoms move in a straight line
2. atoms rebound with the same amount of energy
3. there are no attractice forces between atoms
4. atoms are so tiny
5. temperature increases; atoms move faster
Standard Temperature and Pressure
for a gas, the temperature of 0 Celsius and pressure 1.00 atmosphere
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.
the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
Metric unit for measuring temperature; On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100.
the law that states that the pressure of a gas at a constant volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature
the quantity of a particular substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent (yielding a saturated solution)
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
to undergo a reversible or temporary breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
Properties of Acids and Bases
react with one another to produce a salt and water, conduct electricity, change color of indicator
cycle of water, the movement of water and its transformation between the gaseous (vapour), liquid, and solid forms.
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
defined as having a low salt concentration (less than 1%). Plants and animals are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e., ocean). There are different types of freshwater regions: ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, and estuaries.
an extended mass of ice formed from snow falling and accumulating over the years and moving very slowly, either descending from high mountains, as in valley glaciers, or moving outward from centers of accumulation, as in continental glaciers
(chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a specified amount of a substance by 1°C or 1 K.
A substance spread onto soil to increase its ability to support crops. Fertilizers include organic materials, such as manure, but can also be man made chemicals such as nitrates.
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Maximum Contaminant Levels
The legal maximum amount of a certain contaminant that is allowed in tap and drinking water.