Cytology, 5/21-5/23

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Dr Kim

Cytology

the study of cells

cells

-basic units of life
-have all characteristics of life (metabolizes, eats, reproduces
-can live independently of other cells (bacteria, amoeba)

Microscopes

1. compound light-magnify up to 1,000 times, has 2 lenses and uses visible light
2. transmission electron-uses an electron beam in place of light, magnifies up to 1 million times
3. scanning electron-magnifies 100,000 times, gives a 3-D view (Dr Kim's favorite kind)

Plasma Membrane

a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell:
-bilayer structure: phospholipids, cholesterol (strengthens membrane ), proteins (transports)

organelle

a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell

Nucleus

Largest of the organelles, contains chromosomes
-chromosomes in the nucleus produce RNA, governs all cellular activities

Nucleolus

structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made

Cytoplasm

material that fills the cell from the nuclear membrane to the plasma membrane. regulates what enters and exits a cell.

Cytosol

liquid part of the cytoplasm. a suspension of nutrients, minerals and enzymes in water

Endoplasmic Reticulum

a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another
(rough ER=ribosomes on surface)
(smooth ER=involved with synthesis of lipids)

ribosomes

where proteins are made

mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)

Golgi apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

Lysosomes

digestive enzymes that remove waste

Peroxisomes

organelles that destroy harmful substances that have entered cells

Vesicles

move materials in and out of cells

centrioles

organize and divide cell contents during cell division.
Give support, structure, give nutrients and movement, Provide shape.

flagellum-surface organelle

a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa)

cilia-surface organelle

The hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner creating movement of fluids around a cell

Protein Synthesis

cellular substances that direct the production of proteins.
DNA-chromosomes and genes

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics.
Contains Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine

RNA

A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.

Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Mitosis

, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes

Prophase

first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus

Metaphase

second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

Anaphase

the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

Telephase

4th phase of cell division. the chromosomes become longer, thinner, and less distinct. the nucleur membrane forms. the neocleolus reappears and cell division is nearly complete

cytokinesis

organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells

diffusion

process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
-does not use energy

Osmosis

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
-does not use energy

Filtration

movement of materials through a membrane under mechanical force
-does not use energy

endocytosis

the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell (requires cellular energy)

Phagocytes

white blood cells that digest & destroy microorgasims and other unwanted substances - part of immunity system

Pinocytosis

process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid

Active Transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

Exocytosis

process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

isotonic

having the same or equal concentration as cytoplasm (IV fluids)

hypotonic

less concentrated than intracellular fluid

hemolysis

red blood cells swell and burst (hypotonic)

hypertonic

more concentrated than intracellular fluid

crenation

in animal cells, shriveling of the cell due to water leaving the cell when the environment is hypertonic

mutation

any event that changes genetic structure

Cancer risk factors

-heredity
-chemicals
ionizing radiation
-physical irritation
-diet
-viruses

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