Chemistry Unit 5

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28 terms

crystalline solid

a solid substance whose particles are arranged in an orderly, geometric, repeating patterns

amorphous solid

a solid substance whose particles are arranged in a random matter

allotropic

describes an element that can exhibit more than one structural form in the same state- solid, liquid, or gas

fluidity

the ability of a substance to flow

surface tension

the strong force or cohesion at the surface of a liquid

viscosity

the ability of a substance to resist flowing

specific heat

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one kelvin

molar enthalpy of fusion

the amount of heat required to change one mole of a solid at it's melting point to a liquid

molar enthalpy of vaporization

the amount of heat energy required to change one mole of a liquid at it's boiling point and a constant pressure of gas

liquefaction

change of state from a solid to a liquid at or above the melting point

solidification

change of state from a liquid to a solid

change of state from a liquid to a gas (general term)

vaporization

boiling

change of state from a liquid to a gas at or above the boiling point

change of state from a liquid to a gas at temperatures and pressures below the boiling point

evaporation

condensation

change of state from a gas to a liquid

sublimation

change of state from a solid to a gas without first becoming a liquid

deposition

change of state from a gas to a solid without first becoming a liquid

super critical fluid

substance that exists at a temperature and pressure higher than it's critical point

equilibrium

condition in which two opposing changes occur at a equal rate

phase diagram

shows the particular state in which a substance will exist at different conditions of temperature and pressure

triple point

temperature and pressure at which a substance can exist in equilibrium in all 3 states- solid, liquid, and gas

hexagonal

6 rectangular faces with hexagon shapes bases

cubic

each unit cell are all the same distance from each other and are oriented at 90 degree angles

trigonal

particles in each cell form rhombus shaped bases and 4 rectangular faces

particles in each unit cell form square bases and four rectangular faces

tetragonal

particles in each unit cell form rectangular bases, 2 rectangular faces, and 2 faces that are parallelograms

monoclinic

triclinic

particles in each unit cell form bases and four faces with little or no symmetry

equilibrium

two opposing conditions occur at the same rate

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