-Carry genes that help determine heredity
-found in the nucleus
-the unit of heredity
-a DNA segment that codes for one protein
DNA wraps around them to form chromosomes
Composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information
Found in chromosomes in the nucleous
-Not found in chromosomes
-Located elsewhere in the nucleus and cytoplasm
Types of RNA
-Building blocks of nucleic acids
-A phosphate group
-Thymine (DNA only)
-Uracil (RNA only)
RNA sugar is...
DNA sugar is...
covalent bond between base and sugar
Adenine + ribose
Adenine + deoxyribose
What end does purines have?
What end does pyrimidines have?
1. Backbone of the molecules
2. Base side chains
What is NUCLEIC ACID divided into?
DNA has what bases?
RNA has what bases?
What shape is DNA?
single strand, or complex folding
What shape is RNA?
Backbone is hydrophillic
Bases are SLIGHT hydrophobic
Bases bond in middle with hydrogen bonds
How is the double helix stabilized?
Unwinds DNA during DNA replication
When only two of the four strands are new
Links fragments to form the new strand
Carries genetic info from DNA to ribosomes
Acts as a template for protein synthesis
Transports amino acids to the site of protein synthesis in ribosomes
Complex with proteins in ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis
Small spherical bodies in the cell made of proteins and RNA; the site of protein synthesis
Ribozymes (catalytic RNA)
Catalyzes the formation of other molecules or the hydrolysis of other RNA
Have an active site
Nucleotide sequence in mRNA that codes for a protein
A nucleotide sequence in mRNA that does not code for a protein
Complete DNA sequence of any organism
Core of eight histone molucules around which the DNA double helix is wrapped
Exact coping of segment of DNA
Family of protein-cleaving enzymes
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Techinque to make millions of copies of selected DNA fragments
1st step of TRANSCRIPTION
-RNA polymerase and cofactors bind to DNA and unwind it
2nd step of TRANSCRIPTION
-RNA polymerase binds to the promotor in DNA
-Transcription factors mediate the binding of RNA polymerse and the initiation of transciption
3rd step of TRANSCRIPTION
-One strand of DNA serves as the template for RNA synthesis
4th step of TRANSCRIPTION
-The release of the newly synthesized mRNA from the elongation complex
-mRNA is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain or polypeptide that will later fold into an active protein.