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Pope Urban II

called for Crusades

King Henry II

common law creator

King Philip IV (Philip the Fair)

Estates General creator; kidnapped the pope

Thomas aquinas

greatest scholastic

Clovis

established Frankish kingdom

Pepin

removed last "do-nothing" king; gave church Papal States

Charlemagne

Holy Roman Emperor

Pope Julius II

Renaissance pope-patron of the arts

the Medici family

ruled Florence; patrons of the arts

Dante

divine comedy

Machiavelli

The Prince, "the end justifies the means"

Sir Thomas More

Utopia

Castiglione

the Perfect Courtier

Erasmus

Praise of Folly

John Calvin

French reformer; Calvanism predestination

Martin Luther

justification of faith; German reformer; "started Reformation"

Tetzel

sold indulgences

Henry VIII

Anglican Church; 6 wives

Ignatius Loyola

founded Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

John Locke

17th century English philosophy; justified Glorious Revolution by his Two Treatises of Government; tabula rasa and Social Contract

Thomas Hobbes

expressed absolutism in his Leviathan-humans=selfish and greedy -->need someone to control them

Michael Romanov

started Romanov dynasty that lasted from 1613-1917

Galileo

improved telescope; heliocentric universe; planets=have similar substance to earth

Newton

world-machine concept; matter and gravity

Voltaire

free-speech advocate

Rousseau

natural education; General Will

rené descartes

"I think therefore I am"

Mary wollstonecraft

wonem's rights; feminism

Robespierre

head of reign of terror

Jacobians

radicals; committee of public safety; Reign of Terror; National Assembly

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