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Review of the science vocabulary words for the Mid-term

theory

explanation of things or events from many observations

scientific law

a rule that describes a pattern in nature

earth science

the study of Earth's systems and nonliving things

observation

a record or description of an occurence or pattern in nature

hypothesis

a reasonable guess that can be tested and is based on what is observed

dependent variable

factor that may change as a result of changes to the independent variable

data

information gathered during an investigation

metal

element that has luster, is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity

nonmetal

element that is usually a gas or brittle solid at room temperature and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity

metalloid

element that shares some properties with both metals and nonmetals

semiconductor

element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal but conducts it better than a nonmetal

noble gas

elements in group 18 of the periodic table

actinide

the second series of intertranistion elements which goes from thorium to lawrencium

chemical bond

force that holds two atoms together

compound

pure substance that contains two or more elements

molecule

neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons

chemical formula

combination of chemical symbols and numbers that indicates which elements and how many atoms of each element are present in a molecule

atom

a small particle that makes up most types of matter

solid

matter with a definite shape and volume

liquid

matter with a definite volume but no definite shape that can flow from one place to another

vaporization

the change from a liquid to a gas

condensation

change of matter from a gas to a liquid state

evaporization

change of matter from a liquid to a gas state starting with the top layer of water

density

mass of an object divided by its volume

Pascal's Principle

states that when a force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.

science

systematic way of learning more about the natural world that provides possible explanations to questions and involves using a collection of skills

system

a set of objects or parts that form a whole

physical science

study of matter, which is anything that takes up space and has mass, and the study of energy, which is the ability to cause change

variable

factor that can be changed in an experiment

constant

variable that is not changed in an experiment

prediction

an educated guess as to what is going to happen based on observation

critical thinking

involves using knowledge and thinking skills to evaluate evidence and explanations

transition element

elements in groups 3-12 in the periodic table, all of which are metals

group

family of elements in the perioidic table that have similiar physical or chemical properties

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of a given element

alkali metal

elements in group 1 of the periodic table

halogen

elements in group 17 of the periodic table

lanthanide

the first series of inner transition elements which goes from cerium to lutetium

energy level

the different areas for an electron in an atom

ion

atom that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost an electron

ionic bond

attraction that holds oppositely charged ions close together

metallic bond

bond formed when metal atoms share their pooled electrons

matter

anything that takes up space and has mass

viscosity

a liquid's resistance to flow

energy

the ability to do work or cause change

thermal energy

the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles in a material

temperature

a measure of the average value of the kinetic evergy of the particles in a material

boiling

liquid changes to gas by forming bubbles in the liquid that rise to the surface

bouyant force

upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid

scientific theory

a possible explanation for repeatedly observed patterns in nature supported by observations and results from many investigations

life science

study of living systems and how they interact

technology

use of science to help people in some way

infer

to draw a conclusion based on observation

independent variable

factor that is intentionally varied by the experimenter

controlled experiment

involves changing one factor and observing its effect on one thing while keeping all other things constant

element

a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

period

horizontal row of elements in the periodic table whose properties change gradually and predictably

representative element

elements in group 1 and 2 and 13-18 in the periodic table that include metals, metalloids, and nonmetals

mass number

the sum of neutrons and protrons in the nucleus of an atom

alkaline earth metal

elements in Group 2 of the periodic table

catalyst

substance that can make something happen faster but is not changed itself

chemical change

change in which the identity of a substance changes and forms a new substance or substances

electron cloud

area where negatively charged electrons, arranged in energy levels, travel around an atom's nucleas

electron dot diagram

chemical symbol for an element, surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level

covalent bond

chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons

polar bond

bond resulting from the unequal sharing of electrons

surface tension

the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid

gas

matter that does not have a definate shape or volume; has particles that move at high speeds in all directions

heat

movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher tempurature to a substance at a lower temperature

melting

change of matter from a solid state to a liquid state

freezing

change of matter from a liquid state to a solid state

force

a push or a pull that one object exerts on another

pressure

force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted

Archimedes' principle

states that the bouyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

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