Finals - History Ch. 6 Study Guide

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Answers to the terms of Ancient Rome in the history study guide for Finals.

Pax Romana

"Roman Peace"; a time period when Rome was at its highest power. This occurred during the beginning of the rule of Augustus (formally known as Octavian) in 27 B.C.E. to A.D. 180. Peace encompassed Rome during this time period.

Republic

A form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. This was established in Rome after Tarquin the Proud, a cruel ruler, ruled and Rome decided they will not be ruled by a king.

Etruscans

One of the first three groups that inhabited Rome (Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans) and eventually battled for control. They were native to northern Italy and were skilled metalworkers that helped the development of Rome by: 1.) the Romans adopted their alphabet. 2.) They influenced Rome's architecture, especially the use of the arch.

Romulus

One of the two sons (brother of Remus) of the god Mars and a Latin princess. According to legend, he and his brother Remus founded Rome in 753 BCE. They built Rome on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River.

Hannibal

A Carthaginian general during the Punic Wars who was a brilliant military strategist and wanted to avenge Carthage's first defeat in the wars.

Julius Caesar

Father of Octavian (Augustus). A military leader in 60 BCE who joined forces with Crassus and Pompey to form a triumvirate (group of three leaders). He was elected consul in 59 BCE, but later appointed himself as general of Gaul. He was very popular with the people of Rome due to his major success in Gaul and Pompey feared his ambitions. This military leader than marched his troops and defeated Pompey's troops in Greece and Pompey fled. This man later governed Rome and was an absolute ruler. He did many goods things while he ruled Rome.

Caesar Augustus (Octavian)

Grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar. Formed a 2nd triumvirate with Mark Antony and Lepidus. This triumvirate later ended with violence and jealousy and he remained and ruled Rome all by himself. He was Rome's ablest emperor. Kept the titles of "exalted one", "supreme military commander".

2nd Triumvirate

This Triumvirate was consisted of Octavian (Augustus), Mark Antony, and Lepidus. This triumvirate later ended in violence and jealousy when Octavian forced Lepidus to retire and Mark Antony committed suicide after Octavian after defeating his forces.

Consul

2 Roman officials that ruled for one year. Like kings, they commanded the army and directed the government. The same person could not be elected to this position again for 10 years. These people could also choose dictators.

Plebians

One of the two groups that struggled for power in Rome. This group consisted of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants that made up the majority of the population. They had the right to vote, but they were barred by law from holding most important government positions. This group later formed their own assembly called tribunes, which protected the rights of this group from unfair acts of patrician officials. This group forced the creation of written law code so patricians could not interpret the laws to suit their needs.

Patricians

One of the two groups that struggled for power in Rome. This group consisted of wealthy landowners who owned most of the power. This group inherited their power and social status. They claimed that their ancestry gave them the right to make laws for Rome. Were often unfair to the plebeians and often interpreted laws to suit themselves before the Twelve Tables of written law were created.

Gladiatorial games

Free entertainment provided by the Roman government to distract and control the masses of the Romans. This entertainment was held in the Colosseum, a huge arena that could hold 50,000. Tigers and bears would often fight to the death and gladiators would engage in combat with an animal or with each other until one was killed. Matches were often judged by a thumbs up or a thumbs down from the audience and decided the fate of a falling gladiator.

Purpose of myths

The purpose of myths is to provide answers to the unknown.

Punic War

These 3 wars were Rome vrs. Carthage between 264 and 146 BCE. Rome came out victorious in the first war to gain control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean. Carthage came out victorious in the second war with the help Hannibal. Finally, Rome came out victorious in the third war with the help of a general named Scipio that matched Hannibal's boldness.

Carthaginians

The people of Carthage. Lived on a peninsula on the North African coast. They were involved in the Punic Wars with Rome because their city of Carthage was large, powerful, and interfered with Roman access to the Mediterranean.

Frescoes

These are paintings made on damp plaster. Roman artists used this technique to brighten the walls of Roman homes.

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