Essential nutrients are those which must be provided in the diet because they cannot be made by the body in sufficient quantities, or not at all.
There is no single food for adults and children that contains all the essential nutrients.
Lifestyle behaviors exert a stronger influence on overall health and longevity than do genetic traits.
Goals to improve the diet of all U.S. citizens include:
nutrition education at more schools
reduced consumption of fat and saturated fat
increased intake of plant foods
National goals to achieve dietary change in the American population are summarized in Healthy People 2010: objectives for the Nation.
All of the following would be recommended to someone trying to adopt a healthier lifestyle EXCEPT:
Eat less refined sugar.
Eat more whole grains.
Eat a salad with a variety of vegetables at each meal.
People believe nutrition nonsense and buy fraudulent nutrition products because:
laws that govern truth in advertising are often not enforced.
there are often few or no solutions in orthodox health care.
many people tend to believe what they see in print.
The "Serving Size" on the nutrition facts panel for fruit juice will always be the same, even though the brand may differ.
Too much sugar in the diets of young and elementary school age children has been clearly shown to cause hyperactivity
Attempts at dietary improvement often fail because the changes made are too extreme to be long-lasting and/or too many changes are attempted at once.
Water is mostly reabsorbed in the large intestine.
Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are known as the energy nutrients.
Check all that apply. Fiber intake is recommended:
to prevent constipation and hemorrhoids
accompanied by plenty of fluids (8-12 cups a day)
Bile is produced by the ______ and stored in the ___ until it is released into the small intestine.
liver; gall bladder
Proteins that act to speed up body processes, but are not changed in the process, are called:
What is chyme?
mixture of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices
Which physiological trigger(s) will result in the sensation of hunger?
low glucose levels
The ___ is most responsible for prompting individuals to seek food.
What is the term that best describes the process in which nutrients pass through the wall of the gastrointestinal tract?
Satiation is the sensation of feeling hunger.
Fiber can be found in plant and animal food.
Simple sugars are only found in processed foods.
The body's storage form of glucose is:
Check all that apply. Which of the following statement(s) about sugar is/are true?
Sugar contributes to tooth decay.
When wheat is refined:
most of the fiber is removed
the bran and germ are removed
Approximately 30 -35% ot total calories in the diet should come from carbohydrates, particularly starches.
Check all that apply. Increasing dietary fiber:
should be done gradually
should be accompanied by a lot of fluids
can cause gas and discomfort until intestinal bacteria adjust to higher intakes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is the reason for what is termed the diabetes epidemic.
Diet and exercise are the primary factors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Prediabetes is usually due to a condition known as metabolic syndrome.
A teaspoon of margarine has less fat than a teaspoon of butter.
Hydrogenated vegetable oils contain more saturated fat than the original oil.
Check all that apply about cholesterol.
is found only in animal products
is found in every cell in the body
is made by the liver
Check all that apply about unsaturated fats.
are usually liquid at room temperature
are found mostly in plant foods
may be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated
Check any and all that apply about dietary fats.
Fat is a component of all cell membranes.
Fats are a subcategory of fat-soluble substances chemically known as:
It is clearly established that diets high in saturated fat and trans fat are a major risk factor heart disease.
African Americans are less likely to die from heart disease than are Caucasian Americans.
Although heart disease may begin during childhood, the age group most affected by it is:
adults over 55 years old
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is ____ of total energy intake
A high-protein diet generally corresponds to a diet that is too high in:
How many amino acids are considered to be essential?
Which of these foods is not a good source of protein?
Which of the following plant sources of protein is considered a complete protein for adults?
In what structure of the mammalian cell are proteins synthesized?
Unlike other macronutrients, protein molecules contain the element nitrogen.
Antibodies are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions without being physcially altered.
In properly nourished individuals, protein contributes minimally to energy needs.
Diets high in protein are associated with low blood cholesterol levels.
The essential amino acid found in shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a limiting amino acid.
Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble.
Vitamins give you energy.
Vitamins E, C, and beta-carotene function as antioxidants.
It is too difficult for people to get all the vitamins they need from food,so supplements should be taken.
Blindness can be the result of a prolonged deficiency of vitamin A.
Vitamin K is important for blood clotting.
Choose all that apply. The fat-soluble vitamins include:
Excellent sources of vitamin C include red and green peppers.
Frying decreases the amount of vitamin E in vegetable oil.
Beta-carotene is a provitamin, or precursor, to vitamin A.
Iron-deficiency anemia in children is related to lasting retardation in mental development.
Goiter is a highly visible sign of an iodine deficiency.
An easy way to tell if a food is high in sodium is whether it tastes salty.
Most bottled waters do not contain Fluoride.
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body.
Peak bone density is the point at which our bones are the most dense.
Which of the following increases the absorption rate of calcium?
Check all that apply. Women tend to consume too little calcium because of which of the following reasons?
They may be lactose intolerant.
They think only children need milk.
They are afraid dairy is "fattening."
They drink soft drinks instead of milk.
Check all that apply. Which of the following are not considered risk factors for osteoporosis?
being a smoker
Caucasian or Asian heritage
being a male
inadequate vitamin D intake
Most of the body's iron supply is found in:
Water is an essential nutrient.
Drinking alcohol increases water losses.
Inadequate fluid intake can lead to dehydration.
Lean tissue contains a greater percentage of fluid compared with fat tissue.
Drinking 8 glasses of fluid each day ensures that all healthy adults will meet their fluid needs.
What mineral is mainly provided by our municipal drinking water?
All of the following are signs of adequate hydration status EXCEPT:
dark yellow urine
Women may experience the intoxicating effects of alcohol from lower amounts of alcohol than men.
Which of the following alcoholic beverages has the least alcohol?
12 o.z light beer
Check any and all that apply. Alcohol abuse can lead to deficiencies of nutrients because:
Alcohol accounts for about 50% of the daily caloric intake in heavy drinkers.
A heavy drinker's diet often provides too little thiamin and vitamins A and C.
Alcohol is an "empty-calorie" food.
Alcohol in excess is directly toxic to body tissues.
Satiety, an internal cue to stop eating, can be overridden by appetite, the desire for a specific food.
High-fat foods provide more calories per ounce than foods that contain primarily carbohydrate.
Hunger is a pleasant sensation that is aroused by thoughts of the taste and enjoyment of food.
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following activities is a function of basal metabolism?
digestion of food
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following foods contain calories?
foods you sample while cooking
foods you grab quickly
When calories consumed equals calories expended, resulting in a stable weight, this is termed:
Approximately 50% of obese children will become obese adults.
The majority of obese people have a depressed basal metabolic rate.
As we grow older there is nothing we can do to slow the loss of lean body mass.
Pear-shaped fat patterning is more common in women than in men.
Physical fitness is measured by the body's strength and endurance only.
Regular physical activity benefits both physical and psychological health in people of all ages.
Maximal heart rate is determined by subtracting your age from 220.
Muscle strength can be achieved with resistance training.
The only effective aerobic exercise is jogging.
Nutrition has important effects on physical performance.
Heat exhaustion is more likely to occur when exercising in cold weather.
To achieve cardiorespiratory fitness it is recommended that training should occur _____.
3-5 days a week
Which of the following individuals should have a medical evaluation prior to beginning an exercise regimen?
Betty, a 55-year-old woman who is healthy but inactive
Jack, a 65-year-old man with diabetes
Frank, a 45-year-old man who is healthy but inactive
Regular physical activity can increase HDL-cholesterol.
In order to establish good eating habits in children, they should be denied cakes, candies, cookies, potato chips and other sweet/fattening foods until they have reached elementary school age.
Irritability in children may indicate hunger.
Children should drink milk to help them obtain enough calcium in their diet.
Rates of overweight in children and adolescents in the U.S. have tripled since the 1960's.
Check any and all that apply. During the growing years of childhood:
Physical activity and food preferences are established
Children develop responsiveness to internal feeding cues, if they are allowed to control how much they eat.
Eating habits that may affect the development of diseases in later life are established
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following affects food likes and dislikes?
which foods are offered
how frequently particular foods are offered
the way a food is offered
forcing a child to eat a food
Which of the following is/are NOT characteristic of an "obesigenic" environment for children?
increased opportunities for physical activity
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in young children.
Physical inactivity is more common in girls than boys.
Girls gain more body fat through adolescence than boys.
Most food borne illnesses are linked to meats, eggs, shellfish, and unpasteurized milk.
Food borne illnesses cannot be transmitted by fruits and vegetables.
Salmonella infections can be transmitted via contaminated undercooked eggs.
Check any and all that apply. Foodborne illnesses can often be traced to:
improper food handling techniques
an infected employee in a food service establishment
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following are good ideas when sanitizing your hands?
scrub under your fingernails
use a paper towel to dry them
Check any and all that apply. Which of the following practices will help prevent foodborne illnesses?
Don't keep perishable foods at room temperature for more than an hour.
Wash hands with soap and water prior to preparing foods.
Thaw foods on the refrigerator, not on the counter.
Freeze or refrigerate leftovers promptly.
Which agency monitors all confirmed cases of food-borne illness?
Hepatitus-A is a food borne illness that can result in _____ damage.
Choose any and all that apply. Which of the following is responsible for food spoilage?
90% of all food allergies are due to the ______ found in foods.