Human Development

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Midtem 2

1. In early childhood, what are the physical changes we see in boys and girls? (p. 210)

* Average growth is 2.5 inches and 5 to 7 pounds per year
* Girls are only slightly smaller and lighter than boys
* Slim down as trunks lengthen
* Two most important contributors to height difference are ethnic origin and nutrition
* By age 6, the brain has reached about 95% of its adult size
o most rapid growth takes place in frontal lobe (planning, organization)
o changes in local patterns
o increased myelination (faster)

2. Understand the difference between the two types of motor development. (p. 212)

* Gross Motor Skills--movement of major muscle groups
o 3 yrs--Simple movements such as hopping, jumping, and running
o 4 yrs--Children become more adventurous
o 5 yrs--Hair-raising stunts
* Fine Motor Skills--more precise movements yet still somewhat clumsy. Hand, arm, and body all move together under better command of the eye.
o improved coordination at 4 years
o By 5 years, body coordination
o To help increase: promote self help skills etc. (have them use spoon and fork)

3. Describe the four parenting styles identified by Diana Baumrind as well as their different effects on children (p. 257)

* Authoritarian Parenting
o Firm limits and controls are placed on the child.
o Parents allow very little verbal exchange. "You do it my way or else!"
o Frequent spanking, little explanation of rules, expression of rage
o Associated with children's social incompetence; children are fearful, unhappy, are anxious about comparing themselves with others, fail to initiate activity, and have weak communication skills. Sons may be aggressive.

...

* Authoritative Parenting (best one)
o Parents encourage independence but still place limits and controls on their actions
o Extensive verbal give-and-take
o Parents are warm and nurturing toward the child
o "You know you should not have done that. Let's talk about how you can handle the situation better next time."
o Parents show pleasure and support in response to children's constructive behavior.
o Children are socially competent. They are often cheerful, self-controlled and self-reliant, and achievement-oriented. They are able to maintain friendly relations with peers, cooperate with adults, and cope well with stress.

...

* Neglectful (uninvolved) Parenting
o Parent is uninvolved in the child's life.
o Children believe that the parents' lives are more important than they are.
o Children tend to be socially incompetent--poor self control and don't handle independence well. Low self-esteem, immature, and may be alienated from the family. In adolescence, they may show patterns of truancy and delinquency.

...

* Indulgent (Permissive) Parenting
o Parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Parents let their children do what they want.
o Children never learn to control their own behavior and always expect to get their way. Children rarely learn respect for others and have difficulty controlling their behavior. May be domineering, egocentric, non-compliant, and have difficulties in.

4. What is iron deficiency anemia? What causes this condition? Describe the symptoms. (p. 214)

• One of the most common nutritional problems in early childhood
• Results in chronic fatigue
• Results from the failure to eat adequate amounts of quality meats and dark green vegetables.
• Children from low-income families are most likely to develop this iron deficiency.
• symptoms= (preschool children) slower to display positive affect and touch novel toys for the first time

5. Understand Piaget's preoperational stage. (p. 217)

• Piaget's second stage which lasts from 2-7 years of aged
• Children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
• Formation of stable concepts and reasoning abilities.
• Cognitive world is dominated by ecocentrism and magical beliefs.
• The child does not yet perform operations, which are reversible mental actions (mental math)
• Two substages:
o Symbolic Function substage (2-4 yrs.)--child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present (egocentrism and animism)
o Intuitive Thought substage (4-7 yrs.)--children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions

6. What is the difference between egocentrism and animism? (p. 217-218)

• Both are limitations of pre-operational thought.
• Egocentrism--the inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective (mountain example)
• Animism--the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action

7. Describe centration, conservation, and the limits of preoperational thought. (p. 218-220)

• Centration--the focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
• Conservation--awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties (beaker example)
• Limits of preoperational thought--Inability to reverse actions

9. What is scaffolding? (p. 220)

• Changing the level of support.
• Over the course of a teaching session, a more-skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the child's current performance. When the student is learning a new task, the skilled person may use direct instruction. As the student's competence increases, less guidance is given.

10. Understand the important role of language in a child's development. What are various strategies used? (p. 230-232)

• Vygotsky thought they also use it to plan, guide and monitor behavior (aka PRIVATE SPEECH)
• Private speech: use of language for self-regulation
o Children use speech to communicate socially and to help them solve tasks
o Inner speech becomes their thoughts
o More private speech=more social competence
• Vygotsky said language plays a huge role in directing thought, Piaget said language has a minimal role and that cognition guides it.

11. Know the different types of attention. (p. 224-225)

• Executive attention--involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
• Sustained attention--focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.

12. What strategies are used to improve memory? (p. 227)

• Strategies consist of deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information. Rehearsing information and organizing it are two typical strategies used to remember more effectively.
• Becomes more accurate during childhood
• Short term memory (hold 7 items), long term, and sensory

Chapter 8
13. What is the difference between self-understanding and understanding others?

• Self understanding: child's cognitive representation of self; the substance and content of the child's self-conceptions
• Understanding others: understanding that others have emotions and desires; understanding that people don't always give accurate reports of their beliefs

14. Understand emotional development in early childhood.

• Challenge is regulating their emotions
• Socialization requires regulating emotions
• Emotion-regulation occurs in the frontal lobes
• Two problematic temperamental types

o Externalizing:
 these children wear their emotions on their sleeves
 their actions are disruptive and aggressive

o Internalizing
• these children hold back too much
• they appear timid and insecure
• they often look anxious or depressed

15. How do children control one's emotional response?

• Emotion-coaching: parents monitor their child's emotions, view them as opportunities for teaching, and coach them in how to deal with emotions effectively
• Emotion-dismissing: parents view their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions (reinforcing behavior to continue)
• Emotion regulation requires socialization and occurs in the frontal lobes.
• Self-regulation is characterized by deliberate efforts to manage one's behavior, emotions, and thoughts, leading to increased social competence and achievement. Linked to developmental advances in the brain's prefrontal cortex.

16. Explain Piaget's description of the moral stage of early childhood.

• Two distinct stages:
o 4-7 yrs old: heteronomous morality - justice and rules are unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
o 7-10 yrs old: transition and show aspects of first and second stages
o 10 and older: autonomous morality: rules and laws are created by people, and in judging an action, they consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences

17. Explain the social learning approach to the development of morality during the preschool period (p. 248)

• Piaget concluded that moral development occurs most in peer groups where there is give and take so that plans are negotiated and coordinated and disagreements are reasoned out and eventually settled.

18. What is the difference between gender identity, gender roles and gender typing? (p. 249)

• Gender identity--the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old.
• Gender role--a set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act, and feel.
• Gender typing--acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine role; the process of developing gender behaviors; this begins in infancy.

19. What is collaborative discourse?

...

20. Explain the difference between the 4 types of parenting styles. Give examples of each style. (p. 257)

• Authoritarian Parenting
o Firm limits and controls are placed on the child.
o Parents allow very little verbal exchange. "You do it my way or else!"
o Frequent spanking, little explanation of rules, expression of rage
o Associated with children's social incompetence; children are fearful, unhappy, are anxious about comparing themselves with others, fail to initiate activity, and have weak communication skills. Sons may be aggressive.

...

• Authoritative Parenting
o Parents encourage independence but still place limits and controls on their actions
o Extensive verbal give-and-take
o Parents are warm and nurturing toward the child
o "You know you should not have done that. Let's talk about how you can handle the situation better next time."
o Parents show pleasure and support in response to children's constructive behavior.
o Children are socially competent. They are often cheerful, self-controlled and self-reliant, and achievement-oriented. They are able to maintain friendly relations with peers, cooperate with adults, and cope well with stress.

...

• Neglectful Parenting
o Parent is uninvolved in the child's life.
o Children believe that the parents' lives are more important than they are.
o Children tend to be socially incompetent--poor self control and don't handle independence well. Low self-esteem, immature, and may be alienated from the family. In adolescence, they may show patterns of truancy and delinquency.

...

• Indulgent/permissive Parenting
o Parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Parents let their children do what they want.
o Children never learn to control their own behavior and always expect to get their way. Children rarely learn respect for others and have difficulty controlling their behavior. May be domineering, egocentric, non-compliant, and have difficulties in peer relations.

21. Understand the different types of child maltreatment. (p. 261)

• Physical Abuse--characterized by the infliction of physical injury as result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking, or otherwise harming a child.
• Child neglect--characterized by failure to provide for the child's basic needs. Neglect can be physical (abandonment), educational (allowing chronic truancy), or emotional (marked inattention to the child's needs). This is the most common form of child maltreatment.
• Sexual abuse--includes fondling a child's genitals, intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, exhibitionism, and commercial exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials.
• Emotional abuse (psychological/verbal abuse/mental injury)--includes acts or omissions by parents or other caregivers that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems.

Chapter 9
22. Describe the development of self-understanding that takes place (in middle and late childhood). (p. 319)

• Children increasingly describe themselves with psychological characteristics and traits in contrast to the more concrete self-descriptions of younger children. (popular, nice, helpful, mean, smart, and dumb).
• Begin to recognize the social aspect of the self--include references to social groups in their self-descriptions (Girl Scouts, Catholics, has two close friends...)
• Reference to social comparison (what can they do in comparison to others?)

23. Understand the development of the brain in middle and late childhood.

• Brain volume stabilizes
• Changes in structure and regions occur (prefrontal cortex)
• Cortical thickness increases
• Activation in some areas and deactivation in others (synaptic pruning)

24. What helps improve fine motor skills during middle and late childhood?

• Smoother and more coordinated
• Increased myelination (fat around nerve cells) in CNS=improved fine motor skills
o girls outperform boys in fine motor skills
o boys outperform girls in large muscle activities

. Define and identify the common signs of ADHD (p. 284)

• Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics: (1) inattention, (2) hyperactivity, and (3) impulsivity.
o ADHD occurs 4-9 times more in boys than girls (hyperactive more seen in boys)

. Explain the difference between the three types of learning disabilities (p. 288)

• A child with a learning disability has difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language, and the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, and spelling. A learning disability also may involve difficulty in doing mathematics. To be classified as a learning disability, the learning problem is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; mental retardation; emotional disorders; or due to environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
o boys diagnosed 3X more than girls

...

• About 80% of children with a learning disability have a reading problem. THREE TYPES:
o Dyslexia--a category of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell.
o Dysgraphia--difficulty in handwriting. Individuals may write very slowly, writing product may be illegible and make numerous spelling errors.
o Dyscalculia--also known as developmental arithmetic disorder - involves difficulty in math computation.

27. Understand gender differences in identifying learning disabilities.

• Boys are diagnosed 3X more than girls (more apparent?)
o referral bias (boys are more likely to be referred by teachers for treatment because of troublesome behavior)

28. Define emotional and behavioral disorders.

• Serious, persistent problems that involve relationships, aggression, depression, and fears associated with personal or school matters, as well as other inappropriate socioemotional characteristics

• Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

o also called pervasive developmental disorder, ranging from the severe disorder (Autistic disorder) to a milder disorder (Asperger syndrome). ASD is characterized by problems in social interaction, problems in verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors.
 Autistic Disorder - includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior.
 Aspergers: good verbal language, milder nonverbal language problems and a restricted range of interests and relationships. Often engage in preoccupations with a particular object.

29. Understand Piaget's Operational stage.

• Concrete Operational Stage= 7-11 years old
• Children can perform concrete operations and reason logically, and are able to classify things into different sets
• Operations are mental actions that CAN be reversed and they apply to real life things

30. Explain the difference between seriation and transitivity. (p. 293)

• These are both aspects of Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage
• Seriation is the concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)--put the sticks in order by length.
• Transitivity is the ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions--if A is longer than B and B is longer than C, then A is longer than C.

31. What are the three strategies for improving long-term memory? Give examples of each. (p. 290-291)

• Creating mental images--mental imagery works better for older children than for younger children when trying to remember verbal information.
• Elaborating on information--this involves engaging in more extensive processing of information. Thinking of examples and referencing to one's self are good ways to elaborate information. Thinking about personal associations with information makes the information more meaningful and helps children to remember it.
• Fuzzy trace theory--memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: (1) verbatim memory trace, and (2) gist. In this theory, older children's better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information.

32. Identify the three important aspects of thinking. (p. 295-298)

• Critical thinking--involves thinking reflectively and productively, as well as evaluating the evidence.

...

• Creative thinking--the ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems. Intelligence and creativity are not the same thing. Children will show more creativity in some domains than others:
o Convergent thinking--thinking that produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests.
o Divergent thinking--thinking that produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity.

...

• Scientific thinking--children place a great deal of emphasis on causal mechanisms. Children are more influenced by happenstance events than by an overall pattern, and children tend to maintain their old theories regardless of the evidence. Children also have difficulty designing experiments that can distinguish among alternative causes. They tend to bias the experiments in favor of whatever hypothesis they began with.

33. When is it best for parents to stay together? When is it best to divorce? (p. 265)

• Best to divorce: If the stresses and disruptions in family relationships associated with an unhappy, conflictual marriage that erode the well-being of children are reduced by the move to a divorced, single-parent family.
• Best to stay together: If the diminished resources and increased risks associated with divorce are also accompanied by inept parenting and sustained or increased conflict, not only between the divorced couple but also among the parents, children, and siblings, the best choice for the children would be for an unhappy marriage to be retained.

Chapter 10
34. Explain the shifting of self understanding that occurs during middle childhood. (p. 319)

• Children start to describe themselves with psychological character traits (smart, dumb, nice mean vs. with physical traits)

35. Explain the tendency for social comparison during middle childhood. (p. 319)

• Recognize social aspects of themselves. Reference to social groups in self descriptions.
• No longer what they can't do but what they CAN do in comparison to others

36. Describe the ways that self-esteem develops during middle childhood and the reasons for these changes. (p. 320)

• Self-esteem refers to global evaluations of the self; it is also called self-worth or self-image. (person vs. good person)
o Self-esteem reflects perceptions that do not always match reality.
o Children with high self-esteem have greater initiative.
o Current concern is that too many children have an inflated self-esteem.

37. Explain the advances in understanding others. (p. 319)

• An increase in perspective taking--the ability to assume other people's perspectives and understand their thoughts and feelings.
• In middle and late childhood, children become more skeptical of others' claims.

38. Define the differences between self-esteem and self-concept. (p. 320)

• Self-esteem--the global evaluative dimension of the self. Self-esteem is also referred to as self-worth or self-image. (A child may perceive that she is not merely a person but a good person)
• Self-concept--domain-specific evaluations of the self. (Relating to how a person feels about themselves in various situations such as academically, athletically, or with regards to their appearance)

39. What is social conventional reasoning? (p. 327)

• Boys are more physically aggressive than girls are.
• Girls may be more verbally aggressive than boys. Possibly more relational aggression as well.

41. What is the difference between masculine, feminine and androgynous traits? (p. 331)

• Masculine traits--defends open beliefs, forceful, willing to take risks, dominant, aggressive
• Feminine traits--does not use harsh language, affectionate, loves children, understanding, gentle
• Androgyny--the presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual.
o The androgynous boy might be assertive (masculine) and nurturant (feminine).
o The androgynous girl might be powerful (masculine) and sensitive to others' feeling (feminine).
o Androgynous individuals may be more flexible, competent, and mentally healthy than their masculine or feminine counterparts.

42. Understand the developmental changes in parent-child relationships. (p. 333)

• Middle to late childhood (5-12 years old)=less time with parents, but they are still important in child's lives
• parents support and help achievement for academics (value parents place on school can mean a lot for children's outcomes)
• Elementary aged children receive less physical discipline (more of withholding privileges etc.) than preschoolers
• gradual process, children learn to engage in self control, learn to relate to adults outside of the home (teachers etc. will treat them differently)

43. Define and distinguish between the 5 peer statuses. (pg. 332)

• Popular - frequently nominated as a best friend and rarely disliked by their peers
o Have a number of social skills that contribute to their being well liked (listen carefully, happy, maintain open lines of communication)
• Average -receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers
• Neglected - infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers
• Rejected - infrequently nominated as someone's best friend and are actively disliked by their peers
o Often have serious adjustment problems. They can be aggressive or even shy
• Controversial - frequently nominated both as someone's best friend and as being disliked.

44. What are the benefits of friendships? (p. 335)

• Companionship
o friendship gives children a familiar partner and playmate who is willing to spend time with them and share activities
• Stimulation
o provides children with fun info, excitement and amusement
• Physical Support
o provides time, resources and assistance
• Ego Support
o provides expectation of support, encouragement and feedback which helps children maintain an impression of themselves as competent, attractive, and worthwhile individuals
• Social Comparison
o provides info about where the child stands and whether he or she is doing okay
• Affection and Intimacy
o provides with warm, close trusting relationship. INTIMACY IN FRIENDSHIPS=self disclosure and sharing of private thoughts. Intimate relationships may not appear until early adolescence

45. What is the difference between constructivist and direct instruction approaches? (p. 340-341)

• Constructivist approach--a learner-centered approach that emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher.
o Teachers should not attempt to simply pour information into children's minds.
o Children should be encouraged to explore their world, discover knowledge, reflect, and think critically.
o Emphasis on collaboration
• Direct instruction approach--a structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students' progress, maximum time spent on learning tasks, and efforts to keep negative affect to a minimum.
o Emphasis on maximizing student learning time.
o Some argue that this turns children into passive learners and does not adequately challenge them to think in critical and creative ways.

Chapter 11
46. Discuss the nature of adolescents. (p. 354-355)

• Most stereotypes are pretty negative
• Adolescence is more about evaluation and decision making than rebellion and deviance
• They need enough opportunities to carve out their own identity and become competent adults

47. Describe the reactions girls and boys have to signs of puberty. (p. 358-359)

• In general, boys become more satisfied as they move through puberty because their muscle mass increases.
o Teenage boys who evaluated their appearance more positively and who said appearance was very important to them were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior.
• Girls are less happy with their bodies and have more negative body images than boys throughout puberty in general. This may be due to an increase in body fat.
o Teenage girls who evaluated their appearance more positively were less likely to engage in risky behavior.
o Girls tend to have more negative body images than boys.

48. Describe and understand the process of puberty. (p. 356-357)

1 • Puberty is a period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs mainly during adolescence. It is the most important marker of the beginning of adolescence.
2- • For boys, puberty begins between 10.5 and 13 years of age and ends between 13 and 17 years of age.
o Male pubertal characteristics typically develop in this order: increase in penis and testicle size, appearance of straight pubic hair, minor voice change, first ejaculation, appearance of kinky pubic hair, onset of maximum growth in height and weight, growth of hair in armpits, more detectable voice changes, and growth of facial hair.
o Growth spurt begins at age 11--typically grow 4 inches per year.
3- • Girls experience their first period between the ages of 9 and 15.
o Female pubertal characteristics typically develop in this order: the breasts enlarge and pubic hair appears, armpit hair appears, growth spurt and widening of the hips, menarche (first period).
o Growth spurt begins at age 9--typically grow 3.5 inches per year

49. Explain various disorders of eating (p. 370-371)

• Anorexia nervosa--an eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
o Less than 1% of U.S. girls develop this disorder.
o Weigh less than 85% of what is considered normal for their age and height
o Intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss
o A distorted image of their body shape (still see themselves as fat even when they are thin).
o Begins in the early to middle adolescent years, often following an episode of dieting and some type of life stress.
o These girls set high standards, become stressed about not being able to reach the standards, and are intensely concerned about how others perceive them. They turn to something they can control--weight.
o early to middle adolescence years

...

• Bulimia Nervosa--an eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge pattern.
o Episodes must occur at least twice a week for three months to be considered an eating disorder.
o Preoccupied with food, have a strong fear of becoming overweight, are depressed or anxious, and have a distorted body image.
o Typically fall within a normal weight range so it's more difficult to detect.
o Begins in late adolescence or early adulthood.

50. Identify common causes associated with eating disorders (p. 370)

• Negative body image (always view themselves as too fat)
• Family problems (Negative parent-adolescent relationships)
• Sexually active girls
• Role models and the media--Fashion image

51. Understand the changes that take place in the brain. (p. 360)

• Corpus callosum thickens (this is what connects the brain's left and right hemispheres)--improves the ability to process information
• Amygdala (seat of emotions) matures before prefrontal cortex (judgment, self-control)
• Pruning of synaptic connections

52. What is the difference between abstract and concrete thought? (p. 370 or 372)

• Concrete thought: can reason logically about concrete events and objects, are able to classify objects and to reason about relationships between classes of objects
• Abstract thought (characteristic of Formal Operational Stage): no longer limited to actual, concrete experiences as anchors for thought.
o Able to conjure up make-believe situations, abstract propositions, and events that are purely hypothetical, and can try to reason logically about them.
o Verbal problem solving abilities. Example: if A=B and B=C, then A=C
o metacognition (thinking about thinking)

53. Describe adolescent egocentrism and the two key components. (p. 373)

• Adolescent egocentrism is the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents.
o Imaginary audience: belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are (boy thinks everyone is staring at his acne when he walks in the room)
o Personal fable: a sense of uniqueness and invincibility ("no one understands me"; "I won't get pregnant")

• Chapter 12
54. Understand self-esteem and what influences self-esteem in adolescence. (p. 384-385)

• Self-esteem is the overall way we evaluate ourselves.
• The self-esteem of girls is likely to decline at least somewhat during early adolescence. This may be due to girls' negative body image during puberty.

55. What is it called when someone has a self-centered and self-concerned approach?

• Narcissism is the term used for someone who has a self centered and self concerned approach.
o unaware of their actual self and how others perceive them
o adjustment problems
o their own needs are the most important

56. Understand Erikson's identity vs identity confusion. (p. 386-387)

• The search for an identity during adolescence is aided by a psychosocial moratorium, which is Erikson's term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy.
• Adolescents use this time to experiment with different roles and personalities in order to discover their identity.
• Youth who successfully cope with conflicting identities emerge with a new sense of self that is both refreshing and acceptable.
• Adolescents who do not successfully resolve this identity crisis suffer what Erikson calls identity confusion.
o Individuals withdraw, isolating themselves from peers and family
o OR they immerse themselves in the world of peers and lose their identity in the crowd.

...

• Ways to resolve identity crisis
o Identity diffusion--individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis (explored meaningful alternatives) or made any commitments.
o Identity foreclosure--individuals who have made a commitment but have not experienced a crisis (possibly caused by an authoritarian parenting style)
o Identity moratorium--individuals who are in the midst of a crisis, but their commitments are either absent or vaguely defined.
o Identity achievement--individuals who have undergone a crisis and have made a commitment.

57. What is bicultural identity? (p. 388)

• Individuals who identify in some ways with their ethnic group and in other ways with the majority culture. This occurs when individuals are faced with combining their own ethnic group and the mainstream, or dominant culture.

58. Define the push for autonomy. (p. 391)

• The increasing desire of adolescents to spend time with their peers
• The desire to show that it is they--not their parents--who are responsible for their successes and failures.
• Adolescents' ability to attain autonomy and gain control over their behavior is acquired through appropriate adult reactions to their desire for control.
• As the adolescent pushes for autonomy, the wise adult relinquishes control in those areas where the adolescent can make reasonable decisions, but continues to guide the adolescent to make reasonable decisions in areas in which the adolescent's knowledge is more limited. Gradually, adolescents acquire the ability to make mature decisions on their own.
• Boys are often given more independence than girls.

. What are some problems for adolescents who fail to develop close friendships? (p 392)

• If adolescents fail to forge close friendships, they experience loneliness and a reduced sense of self-worth.

60. What is the difference between crowds and cliques? (p. 395)

• Clique--a small group that ranges from 2 to about 12 individuals, averaging about 5 to 6 individuals, and can form because adolescents engage in similar activities.
• Crowd--a larger group structure than a clique, a crowd is usually formed based on reputation and members may or may not spend much time together.

61. What is relational aggression? (p. 392)

• spreading rumors
• Involves harming someone by manipulating a relationship.
• Includes behaviors such as trying to make others dislike a certain individual by spreading malicious rumors about the person.
• Comprises a greater percentage of girls' overall aggression than is the case for boys.

62. Understand antisocial and pro-social behavior. (p. 327)

• Immoral antisocial acts--lying and cheating
• Prosocial moral behavior--showing empathy or acting altruistically

...

Depression:
-girls are 2X more prone than boys
-boys are taught to "act out"
-factors:
-heredity, experiences, and attitudes

...

Suicide:
-3rd leading cause of death in 10-19 year olds
-females more often attempt but boys more often succeed (more violent ways)
-factors:
-history of suicide in family, no friends, culture, and genetics

...

What affects most adolescents?
1. Drug abuse
2. Juvenile delinquency
3. Sexual problems
4. School related problems

...

Successful interventions:
1. One on one attention (individualized)
2. Community wide approaches (programs)
3. Early identification and intervention (two previous)

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