law of segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
law of independent assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses
DNA consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine
method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity
causes of mutations
spontaneous or mutagens: radiation (X-rays, UV light) or chemicals (pesticides, drugs, alcohol, caffeine)
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome
the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that makes the amino acid sequence of a protein
the process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature forms and functions and they become specialized.
process by which a gene produces its protien and the protien carries out its function
A cell that doesn't have a specific function.
creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other
shows both domnanat traits, not a blend of the two (Roan Cows+ blood groups)
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein. They are involved in RNA trancription but not in RNA translation. They are taken out before the RNA is translated.
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein. They do code for a protien and are involved in both RNA transcription and translation.
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
change in body cells contained in every cell except the reproductive cells. it is not inheritable
a mutation in reproductive cells (sperm and eggs)
the loss of multiple nucleotides from a gene by mutation; the loss of a fragment of a chromosome.
change to a chromosome in which part of the chromosome is repeated
A piece of chromosome come off, flips around , and rejions the same chromosome.`
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a different chromosome
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
when a point mutation results in substituting one amino acid for another
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
different forms of a gene
having two identical alleles for a trait
having two different alleles for a trait
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.
genetic makeup of an organism
the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene