What was the Mexican Cession?
the land that the US gained as a result of the
Who was Joseph Smith?
a New York farmer and founder of the Morman church.
What were 2 of the beliefs of the Mormon church that put them in conflict with their neighbors?
1. believed that property should be held in common
2. favored polygamy
the practice of having more than one wife at a time
Because of hostile communities, the Mormons moved from to New York to ________1.______,
then to ______________2.______ and then _________3.________.
3. Nauvoo, Illinois
What happened to Joseph Smith? Where?
he was murdered by an angry mob in Nauvoo, Illinois
Who was Brigham Young?
Where did he lead the Mormans to?
he was the new mormon leader. he led them to Utah
Conflict with the gov't:
When Utah became a part of the US, known as the Utah Territory, in 1848, conflicts between the federal gov't and the Mormons developed.
Name the 3 conflicts:
1. the mormon church controlled the election process in the Utah territory so non mormons had no say
2. the church supported businesses that were owned by Mormons
3. polygamy(illegal in the rest of the country)
Where did the Mormons settle in Utah?
Salt Lake City
About how many Mormon people moved to Utah?
What year did Utah become a state?
Why did the Mormons leave Illinois?
after smiths death they knew nauvoo was no longer safe
Who was John Sutter?
The landowner where gold was first discovered.
Who was James Marshall?
he discovered the gold in california when he was building a sawmill on John Sutter's land near sacremento
Where was gold first discovered?
John Sutter's land near sacremento in California
What was the California Gold Rush?
it was when many different types of people immigrated/ migrated to California to collect gold
Who were the "forty-niners"?
people who came to california in search of gold
About how many people flocked to California is seach of gold?
Gold above ground was easliy found.
Define "hitting pay dirt"
What were 'water rights"?
Why was this a problem during the Gold Rush?
the legal rights to use water in a river, stream, or body. the laws of water rights were ignored during the gold rush so it was a problem then
Why were the water rights an important issue?
b/c disputes over water rights erupted into violence
Describe life in a mining town.
not permanant places and sprang up overnight and emptied just as quickly when new news of gold strike was found. miners there were willing to pay high prices for food and supplies, and needed entertainment. a typical mining town is mzcd up of a row of businesses with a saloon at its center. also, federal laws did not take hold so people made their own laws and punishments
California was not yet a state, so federal laws did not apply. How did miners impose some order to these mining towns?
they created their own laws and punishments (vigilantes)
self appointed law enforcers
What was the role of women during the Gold Rush?
some came to California in search of work, fortune, or adventure. some mined but most stayed in town and worked or ran boardinghouses, hotels, restaurants, laundries, and stores
Why did the Gold Rush bring enormous ethnic diversity to California?
What % of Califonia's population was foreign-born?
40%. europeans enjoyed more freedom and less prejudiceness, while chinese came in hope of supporting their families, others came for several other reasons but all b/c of fortune purposes
Why did the Chinese move from China to California? About how many?
b/c their economy was in trouble and many wanted to support families. 45,000 men went to california
The Chinese face prejudice. What were the jobs like for the Chinese workers?
hired to do menial labor: some cooked, did laundry, helped build railroads, and worked on farms. they were generally not given higher paying jobs
African Americans in California were not slaves. Southerns did bring their slaves with them during the gold rush. Why did the other miners object to this?
they felt that anyone who profited from mining should participate in the hard labor of finding gold
What was the impact of the Gold Rush on Native Americans?
it brought tragedy b/c Vigilante gangs killed them and stole there land. nearly 2 thirds of NA population in California died during the gold rush
People who came to California in search of gold were called
EXPLANATION: The term forty-niners refers to people who came to California in search of gold, starting in 1849.
The gold rush was different from other migrations in American history because past migrations had:
a) included men and women of all ages.
b) consisted mostly of older men.
c) included only young men and women.
d) consisted mostly of younger men
d) mostly younger men
What general effect did the gold rush have on many Native Americans in California?
a) They shared equally in the newfound wealth.
b) They got jobs in the mines and in mining towns.
c) They lost their lives and lands.
d) They fought the miners and gained freedom
c) They lost their lives and lands.
EXPLANATION: Miners overran Indian lands in their search for gold. In the process, about 100,000 Indians died from violence, and much of their land was taken.
Which of the following mining techniques required the least amount of labor, money, and skill?
a) the use of picks and shovels
b) placer mining
c) the use of machinery
d) searching for lodes
b) placer mining
EXPLANATION: In comparison to other mining techniques, placer mining does not require much labor, money, or skill. The placer miner washed dirt from a stream in a pan and looked for grains of gold that might be left in the bottom.
Why did the Mormons move west to settle in Utah?
They hoped to escape religious persecution.
EXPLANATION: The Mormons had experienced religious persecution in New York, Ohio, and Missouri.