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Gratwick History

Ka'ba

("cube") a pre-islamic cubed building in mecca believed by muslims to have been built by Abraham. Contains a black stone thought to be God's dwelling place.

Caliph

The successor to Muhammad; the representative or deputy of god

Umma

A community of those who share a religious faith and commitment (Islam) rather than a tribal tie

Meuzzin

the crier who, from a minaret or other high part of a mosque, at stated hours five times daily, intones aloud the call summoning Muslims to prayer

Jihad

"Holy War," an Arabic term that some scholars interpret as the individual struggle against sin and others interpret as having a social and communal implication

Diwan

a Muslim council chamber or law court

Sunni

A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad

Shi'ite

a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali, a direct descendant of Muhammad, as the legitimate successor to Muhammad and rejects the first three caliphs

Five Pillars of Islam

1) Profess that there is only one God and Muhammad is his prophet (the Creed)
2) Pray five times daily
3) Fast and pray during the month of Ramadan (unless sick, pregnant, traveling or a child)
4) Must visit Mecca once in lifetime (Hajj)
5) Must contribute to the poor (Zakat)

Dhimmis

a term meaning "protected peoples"; they included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians.

Shari'a

Muslim law which covers social, criminal, political, commercial and religious matters

Imam

leader in community prayer (Muslim version of a priest)

Mecca

- Holy Muslim city
- pilgrimage to Mecca = hajj
- the prophet Muhammed's birthplace

Abbasid Dynasty

- 750-1258 CE
- after the Umayyad dynasty
- more prosperous time
- Baghdad became the capital and both Arab and non-Arab Muslims could hold civil and military offices

Umayyad Dynasty

- 661 - 750 CE
- moved capital from Medina to Damascus
- that action split Islam (Shi'ites & Sunnites)

Muhammed

- 570 - 632 CE
- Ancient Muslim prophet and founder of Islam

Qur'an

A sacred text with all of the revelations of Muhammed

House of Wisdom

- Located in Baghdad during the Abbasid Dynasty
- Center for knowledge where scholars from around the world would go to
- these scholars made many advancements in medicine, physics, algebra, astronomy & much more

Trans - Saharan Trade

- Trade between Muslims and Africans (sub - saharan)
- Popular for trading gold & slaves

White Thesis

- Say that Diop badly misunderstood evidence.
- Say that the pharoahs of 1st century BCE descended from the Macedonian generals, who were white.

Black Thesis

- Diop (a scholar) argued that much Western 18th century historical writing has been a "European racist plot" to destroy evidence showing that the people of the pharaohs were black.
-Diop claimed that he detected high levels of melanin in the mummies of pharaohs.

Sundiata

- Ruler of Mali (1230-1255)
- Set up capital in Niani; made it an important financial and trading center.
- Embarked on policy of imperial expansion.

Mansa Musa

- Africa's most famous ruler (1312-1337)
- influence extended to Berber cities in the Sahara, Timbuktu, Gao, and to Atlantic ocean.
- Maintained strict royal control over trans-Saharan trade
- Took responsibility for the territories that formed the heart of the empire.
- Appointed governors to rule outlying provinces/ dependent kingdoms. Appointed members of Royal Family.
- Devout Muslin. Pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324-1325. Visited the Sultan of Egypt. Magnificent entrance into Cairo: 500 slaves, each carrying 6 1/2 lb. staff of gold, 100 elephants, each carrying 100 lbs of gold.
- All the gold brought inflation to Egypt.
- He gained some understanding of Mediterranean countries and opened diplomatic relations with Muslim Morocco and Egypt rulers.

Timbuktu

-City in Mali
-Like Baghdad
-Center of trade & Muslim kingdom
-House of Wisdon
-Rise in economy -> rise in culture
-campsite for desert nomads -> thriving etrepôt
-center of scholarship & learning
-architects, atronomers, poets, lawyers, mathematicians, theologians
-14th & 15th centuries -> union of Malians & Arabs
-intermarriage -> racially mixed people
Ibn Battuta (1352-1353) visits court of Musa's successor & writes good things

Kebre Negast

Ethiopian propaganda book telling how the true ark of the covenant lies in Ethiopia and Makeda had a son by Solomon. It was designed to raise patriotism and religious pride in Ethiopia.

Queen Makeda

-"Queen of Sheba"
-traveled from Ethiopia to Jerusalem
-seduced by King Solomon, had a son named Menilek
-myth, but Ethiopians claim connects them to Judaism

Menelik

- Queen Makeda & Solomon's son
- Brought the arc of the covenant to Ethiopia
- most likely the arc of the covenant is NOT in Ethiopia but Ethiopians claim that it is
- Links them to Judaism

Kilwa

-The most powerful city on the coast of Africa by the late 13th century.
-The wealthy live in single-storied buildings made of stone and coral.
-Some buildings had 2nd and 3rd stories and decorative stone carved designs.
-The poor lived in mud and straw huts.
-harvested rice, millet, oranges, mangoes and bananas
-They had cattle, sheep and poutlry
-High yields and food production
-Kilwa's prosperity rested on it traffic in gold.
-Exported slaves, ivory, leopard skin, tortoise shell and ambergris.
-Bulk of exports were animal products

Ghana

- 900 - 1100 CE
- Economy: trans - Saharan trade of gold, slaves and ivory
- Social: class system
1) Kings and administrators
2) Merchants
3) Cattle breeders, laborers (majority)
4) Slaves (few)
- Political: Monarch who was also religious leader (matrilineal line)
- Religion: African Polytheism; Islam

Mali

- 1200 - 1450 CE
- Economy: trans - Saharan trade of gold, slaves and ivory
- Social: class system
1) Kings and administrators
2) Merchants
3) Cattle breeders, laborers (majority)
4) Slaves (few)
- Political: Monarch who was also religious leader (matrilineal line)
- Religion: African Polytheism; Islam
- VERY similar to Ghana

Ethiopia

- 900 - 1947 CE
- Economy: Agricultural
- Political: Monarch (claimed Solomonic descent)
- Religion: Christianity (Kebre Negast)

Swahili Coast

- 0 - 1600 CE
- Economy: trade based (monopoly on gold and ivory)
- Social: "Arab" (deny African descent) = high class; "African"= low class
- Political: Arab Sheik and tribe leaders (no political unity)
- Religion: African Polytheism; Islam

Emperor Lalibela

- 1185-1225 CE
- An Ethiopian emperor who could not claim Solomonic descent
- carved eleven different churches out of rock mountains to prove his legitimacy as an emperor

Patriarch

- The religious leader of Orthodox churches

Schism

- division of a religious group into opposing factions
- the schism between Catholics and Orthodox in 1054 CE

Simony

- the selling or buying of a position in a christian church

Charles Martel

- the Frankish commander for the Battle of Tours
- he defeated the Muslims at Tours in 732 CE, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages
- started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.

Charlemagne

- 724 - 814 CE
- Crowned "Holy Roman Emperor" in 800 CE after he saved Pope Leo III in 772 CE

Holy Roman Empire

- the lands ruled by Charlemagne
- a continuation of the Roman Empire in Medieval Europe

Feudalism

- "Land for Service"
- A class system strictly for higher classes (those who fight)
- Nobles and Knights would fight in battle to get land from the king or emperor
- King/Emperor -> Nobility -> Knights

Manorialism

- "Freedom for Security"
- A class system for lower classes (those who work)
- Noble/Knight -> Serfs

Serf

- would work on land owned by a noble or a knight for security in case of an invasion, famine or natural disaster
- were the majority of the population and the lowest class of people
- were tied to the land and could only gain freedom if they managed to run away for a year and a day

Fief

- a piece of land held under the feudal system by a noble in exchange for their loyalty and service on the battlefield

Vassal

- A noble who was given a fief from the king or emperor in exchange for their service and loyalty

Yeoman

- a free farmer who owned their own small piece of land

Sacraments

- 7 religious ceremonies in the Catholic Church
- Baptism, Eucharist/Communion, Confirmation, Marriage, the Last Rites, etc.

Excommunication

- when the pope does not allow a person to perform go through the sacraments
- without the sacraments, a person goes to hell after they die
- Pope Clement VII excommunicated King Henry VIII
- Henry had wait in the snow for three days to come in and then kiss the Pope's feet for forgiveness

Tithe

- 10% of a person's income that goes to the church
- this is why simony was so popular

Norman Conquest

- 1066 CE
- the invasion and settlement of England by the Normans
- the English were defeated at the Battle of Hastings
- William, Duke of Normandy vs King Harold II of England
- This was the last time in history that England was invaded

Guild

- similar to a union
- a self-run group of craftsman who set standard prices for their services
- if a craftsman who was part of the guild set different prices, something bad would happen to him at night

Minstrel

- a person who was paid to sing and tell stories about the greatness of a certain knight
- similar to bards

Black Death

- 1347 - 1350 CE
- a pandemic of the bubonic plague that spread throughout Europe and to some parts of Asia
- killed almost half of the population of Europe
- worst pandemic in history

Great Famine

- 1310 - 1320 CE
- caused by bad weather which made all the crops die
- lead to heavy inflation

Crecy

- 1346
- First battle of the Hundred Years War
- the English King Edward III and his son Edward the Black Prince fought the French and Philip VI
- The English defeated the French with their longbows
- longbows defeated chivalry

Joan of Arc

- 1412 - 1431 CE
- French heroine and military leader during the Hundred Years War
- inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king,
- was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake

Investiture Controversy

- Lay investiture (authority of the king) vs Church investiture (papal authority)
- Controversy over who should appoint cardinals and bishops
- Pope chose cardinals and bishops but king had a veto power
- similar to how Supreme Court officials are chosen (President picks them but congress can kick them out if needed)

Pope Urban II

- 1088-1099
- The pope who addressed knights at Clermont, France to initiate the First Crusade

Tournament

- Civilized competitions between knights
- organized by heralds
- Women went to find a future husband

Rule of St. Benedict

- Requirements for allowing a person to become a monk
- Said person must be dedicated to the religion
- ex. if a person wishes to enter a monastery, they must knock at the door for three days straight

Etruscans

- Group of people that ruled from 750 BCE- 500 BCE, ruled over Rome
- Legend says that the Roman republic was formed when the son of an Etruscan king raped a virtuous Roman wife who committed suicide
- Romans got many things (togas, legions) from Etruscans

Cincinnatus

- 450 BCE
- A Roman patrician who was made dictator by the people for 6 months while Rome was attacked by neighboring enemies
- Cincinnatus defeats the invaders after 3 months, but steps down from power and sets the pattern for Roman government (don't abuse power)
- Cincinnatus= exemplary leader

Struggle of the Orders

- 490-287 BCE
- Struggle between Plebeians (free citizens with a voice in politics, but they could not hold high office or marry into patrician families) and Patricians (wealthy land owners)
o Plebeians wanted equal rights
o Plebeians protested nonviolently by refusing to serve in the army and walking out of Rome
- Gradually, Patricians gave Plebeians some rights (vote for officials, could marry patricians) because they realized they needed the Plebeians, who made up most of the population and boycotted by refusing to serve in the army
- Patricians surrendered their legal monopoly by publishing the Law of the Twelve Tables

Twelve Tables

- Early Republic era (450 BCE), laws inscribed on 12 bronze plaques
- Law of the 12 tables (include killing of deformed child, females are always guardianship of man, you must go to court if you're called, you need witnesses, and you must pay back debts)

Hannibal

- Son of a Carthaginian general in the First Punic War who wanted revenge on Rome
- Journeyed from North Africa through Spain and France into Italy for the Second Punic War
- Eventually lost to Scipio and committed suicide

Carthage

- Founded by Phoenician traders in present day Tunisia in 814 BCE
- Trade based city
- Punic Wars with Rome, ended up being defeated by Rome

Zama

- Battle of Zama (202 BCE)
- In Carthage, Hannibal was defeated by Scipio because Hannibal was resupplied with elephants, but Scipio drilled soldiers on how to deal with elephants

Punic Wars

- Three Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome
- First Punic War: 265 BCE à 241 BCE, Rome won and got Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Carthage's entire treasury. Romans boarded Carthaginian ships using planks and was able to use hand to hand combat instead of naval fighting (Carthage was a sea power, and Rome had no navy, but Romans found a Carthaginian ship and built many copies of it)
- Second Punic War: Hannibal fought Rome, ended in 202 BCE with Hannibal's defeat
- Third Punic War: 146 BCE, Rome destroyed Carthage once and for all

Paterfamilias

- Head of the household
- Oldest dominant male of the family
o Could sell and kill family members, etc.

Latifundia

- Large estates owned by consuls, senators, and patricians
- Conquered land worked on by prisoners of war (slaves)
- Forced small farm owners mostly out of business since latinfudia's were easier to maintain and sold grain, etc. for cheaper

Gracchus Brothers

- Brothers who were both murdered by the senate
- Both tribunes (dealt with local affairs, beneath consuls)
- Tiberius Gracchus wanted to divide the wealthy people's land among the poor, so he was beat to death in 133 BCE
- Gaius Gracchus proposed giving free grain to the homeless

Marius

- Military commander and reformer who put landless men into the military and promised them land (before, one could only be in the army if they were a landowner)
- Senate refused the landless men land, and the free men in the military felt betrayed by senators and the republic, and trusted their military commanders more

Julius Caesar

- Gained popularity by...
o Extending citizenship to many provincials outside Italy who had supported him
o Sent poor citizens to plant colonies in Gaul, Spain, and North Africa
o Led his troops to victory in Spain and modern France
- Declared himself dictator so he was stabbed 35 times by the senate
- Republic crashes when Caesar requests to be dictator

Agustus

- Ends the civil wars
- Start of Pax Romana
- Claims to "restore the Republic" but gives himself responsibilities (controls the army, First Citizen of the State, etc.)

Pax Romana

- 27 BCE-180 AD
- A time that was mostly peaceful

Princeps Civitatis

- First Citizen of the State
- Augustus

Messiah

- Messianic People (one of the groups of Judaism) looked for a messiah (a savior) that would destroy the Roman legions and inaugurate a period of happiness and plenty for the Jews
- More spiritual than the Zealots, thought Jesus was the messiah

Diocletian

- 284 - 305 AD
- Split the empire into 4 sections that brought peace for a while
- Named himself the son of Jupiter and made people kiss his feet, which was another reason for people to convert to Christianity
- In 303 AD, Diocletian performed the biggest persecution of Christians (churches burned, Christians tortured and executed)

Constantine

-Named Constantinople capital of eastern Rome in 312 AD
- turned Christian on death bed

Theodosius

- Emperor from 379-395
- Last emperor to rule over both the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire
- Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire

Paul of Tarsus

- A Hellenized Jew (Greek Jew, assimilated, could speak and read Greek) who spreads Christianity by saying that you don't have to adopt Jewish practices (circumcision, etc.)
- Converted to Christianity after God talked to him on his way to persecute Christians

Peter

- Officially the first Pope

Roma et Agustus

- Cult created by Emperor Augustus that spiritually tied himself to the people (god-like) and united the empire

Senate

- The most powerful part of the roman empire
- Elected the consuls

Grand Canal

A canal, built during the Sui Dynasty, that connected the Huang (Yellow) and Yangzi rivers

Empress Wu

A consort to Emperor Wu, Empress Wu declared herself emperess in 680 CE (Tang Dynasty) after her husband died. She then circulated a sutra that a Buddhist monk wrote saying that the next reincarnation of Buddha will be a woman.

Uighers

A Turkish "barbaric" tribe who originally helped put down the An Lushan rebellion during the Tang Dynasty (608 - 907 CE) but eventually overtook Central Asia, revoking their alliance

Medieval Chinese Economic Revolution

- 800 - 1100 CE
- Population doubles from 50 million to 100 million
- Farmers go from being self-sufficient to commercialization
- Increase in copper coins
- Creation of paper money (no intrinsic value)
- Joint stock companies
- Creation of guilds (similar to unions)
- Ship designs improved
- Compass invented
- Advances in Metallurgy
- Increase in iron production
- Creation of gun powder
- Increase in concubines/courtesans
- Scholar officials still highest class

Tea Trade (p. 330)

- Started being grown and drunk during Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE)
- Believed to "sober you up"
- Tang Dynasty (608 - 907 CE) made tea a major item in trade
- Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 CE) established government monopoly on tea
- Tea spread to Korea and Japan as part of a Buddhist culture
- Monks drank it to stay awake during long meditation or recitation
- Tea became important in Europe in the seventeenth century
- Started in Russia in 1618

Examination System

- Established during the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 CE)
- Scholar-officials were selected through a highly competetive, greuling civil service exam on Confucianism and the Analects
- If you did well, you get a government job
- Very few scholars passed

Neo-Confucianism

- The revival of Confucian thinking that began in the eleventh century
- Turned Confucianism into more of a religion than a philosophy
- Made to rival Buddhist thinking

Concubines

- Ancient and medieval prostitutes
- A way of showing off wealth

Yurts

Movable tents the Mongols lived in

Secret History of the Mongols

- Oldest surviving Mongolian-language literary work
- It was written for the Mongol royal family some time after Genghis (Chinggis) Khan's death in AD 1227
- Anonymous author
- Regarded as the single significant native Mongolian account of Genghis Khan

Khublai Khan

- Served as the Great Khan during 1260 and as the Emperor of China from 1280 - 1295 C.E.
- Tried to be the Mongol khan and the Chinese emperor simultaneously
- Alleged grandson of Genghis Khan
- Abolished civil service exams to preserve Mongol preponderance in the government

Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)

Tax Farming

The process of assigning the collection of taxes to whoever bids the most for the privilege

Karakorum

Capital of the Mongol Empire (1206-1368)

Han Yu

- Author of "Memorial on Buddhism" (819 CE) which criticizes Buddhist ways
- Scholar-official
- wanted to revert back to Confucianism
- Said that you lose heritage (Mandate of Heaven, Filial Piety, etc.) with Buddhism

Sui Dynasty

- 581 - 618 CE
- Founded by Yang Jian
- built the Grand Canal
- Connected Huang (Yellow) and Yangzi Rivers

Tang Dynasty

- 618 - 907 CE
- Founded by Li Yuan
- Its capital, Chang'an was the cultural center of East Asia
- Cosmopolitan

Song Dynasty

- 960 - 1279 CE
- Founded by Tai Zu
- Were in power for most of the MCER
- First to have paper money

Mongol Empire

- 1206 - 1368 CE
- Founded by Genghis Khan
- Largest land empire in the history of the world
- Spanned from Eastern Europe across Asia

Chinggis (Genghis) Khan

- 1162 - 1227 CE
- Founder and greatest ruler of the Mongol Empire
- Appointed Great Khan in 1206 CE
- Many rulers of the Mongol Empire after claimed to be descended from Genghis Khan
- Originally named Temujin

Foot Binding

- Male-imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size
- produced pain and restricted movement
- helped to confine women to the household

Khanates

Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan

Chang'an

- Capital of Tang dynasty
- population of 2 million
- larger than any other city in the world at that time.

Individualism

- A "philosophy" used during the Renaissance (ca. 14th century - 17th century) that stressed personality, uniqueness and the full development of capabilities and talents
- A person's abilities should be streched until realized

Humanism

- Another "philosophy" during the Renaissance that focused on the achievements, interests and capabilities of human beings
- More popular with kings and emperors than the church

Secularism

- A basic concern with the material world instead of with eternal and spiritual matters
- Renaissance society was secular: attention was concentrated on the here and now, often on the acquisition of materials

Leonardo da Vinci

- 1452-1519 CE
- Italian painter, sculptor, engineer, scientist and architect
- The most versatile genius of the Italian Renaissance
- Best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503)

Michelangelo

- 1475 - 1564 CE
- An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect
- sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà
- painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel
- Served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome
- He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time

Machiavelli

- 1469-1527 CE
- A statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government in his book "The Prince"

Castiglione

- 1478 - 1529 CE
- Wrote "The Courtier" which was about education and manners of upper classmen
- It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art

Thomas More

- 1478 - 1535
- Was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man
- He wrote "Utopia", a book that represented a revolutionary view of society
- Was beheaded for opposing Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon

Erasmus

- 1466 - 1536
- Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More
- Possibly the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected
- Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed
- Did not suport the idea of a Reformation
- Wrote "Praise of Folly"

Brunelleschi

- 1377-1446 CE
- From Florence
- First great architect of the Italian Renaissance
- Built the largest free standing dome by making an inner and outer dome for La Doma in Florence

Cosimo de'Medici

- 1389 - 1464 CE
- Florentine financier and statesman and friend of the papal court
- Most famous of the Medici's (in power from 1434 - 1494 CE)

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