A person who studies Earth's water systems and helps find solutions to problems of water quality and quantity
Why is less than one third of fresh water available for use by humans?
Because most of the fresh water on earth is frozen.
What has to happen in order for water to change from one state to another?
Energy has to be added or removed
What is the water cycle?
The movement of water from Earth's surface into the air and back to the surface again.
Where does the salt in
ocean water come from?
As water moves over the ground and rocks, it picks up salt and other substances. The water finds its way into the ocean and all the salt and other substances that were carried by the water also enter the ocean.
Why is ocean water more
dense than fresh water?
Ocean water has a higher density than fresh water
because ocean water has more salt in it.
Which has a lower freezing point; ocean water or fresh water?
Ocean water has a lower freezing point than fresh water.
How do volcanoes add salt to the oceans?
Volcanoes on the ocean floor add salt and other substances directly into the water. Volcanoes on land send out substances high into the air. Some of this matter falls right into the ocean. Some of it falls to Earth's surface and is carried to the ocean by water as the water flows over the ground.
Where do dissolved solids in the ocean come from?
Water on the ground, volcanoes on the ocean floor and volcanoes on land.
How does the mass of 1 L of ocean water and 1 L of fresh water compare?
Ocean water has a greater mass because of the salt in it
How does the density of ocean water and fresh water compare?
Ocean water has a higher density because of the salt in it
How does the salinity of ocean water and fresh water compare?
Ocean water has a higher salinity than fresh water
How do the freezing points of ocean water and fresh water compare?
Ocean water has a lower freezing point than fresh water
Why is ocean water saltier near the Equator?
Close to the equator, the salinity is high because of high rates of evaporation. When the water in the ocean transforms into vapour in the air, it leaves the salt behind.
Why is ocean water saltier near the North and South Poles?
Water is very salty near the North and South Poles because when water freezes and changes into ice, it leaves the salt behind.
Why is ocean water near continents less salty than in the middle of the ocean?
Near continents, the salinity is lower than in the middle parts of the ocean because the fresh water from the rivers empties into the ocean and dilutes the salt water.
An area of land on which precipitation falls and drains into a common river (also called a watershed)
How are alpine glaciers different from
Alpine, or valley, glaciers are located in mountain areas. Continental glaciers, or ice sheets, are much more massive and cover large areas of land.
An area of built-up sediment deposited by a river where the river empties into an ocean or a lake.
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
The process through which rock is broken down when its mineral react with chemical agents such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and acids
The gradual process of breaking down rock physically without changing it composition
Most of the world's glaciers are receding.
What does receding mean?
A receding glacier is a glacier that is melting faster than it can slide downstream, this gives the impression that it is going backwards.
How does a cave form?
A cave is formed when acidic ground water starts dissolving carbonate rock and these little gaps become bigger and bigger over thousands of years.
How is a delta formed?
When fast-moving river water enters a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, it slows down and begins to drop sediment it has carried downstream. The pattern created is usually triangular or fan-shaped.
Thick, icicle-shaped formations hanging from the roofs of caves. Stalactites are formed from dripping mineral-rich water over thousands of years.
What happens when Carbon Dioxide gas mixes with rainwater in the atmosphere?
They form a mild acid called carbonic acid. This acid has the ability to dissolve rock.
True or False? Chemical weathering is greatest in climates with high temperatures, a lot of rainfall and high levels of pollution in the air.
True or False? Physical weather is greatest in climates with a lot of moisture in the air or rain and snow and where there are large temperature differences between summer and winter or between daytime and nighttime.
True or False? Rust is an example of physical weathering
False. Rust is an example of chemical weathering. The moisture in the air reacts with iron and causes it to rust.