3 Written Questions
3 Multiple Choice Questions
- A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.
- One of Pepin's sons. He organized a good part of Western Europe into a Frankish kingdom. He was a powerful general and a powerful king, and became known as Charlemagne. Which is French for "Charles the Great."
- The German emperor who objected to the pope's ruling. He was excommunicted by the pope. The pope told his subjects not to obey him. The pope eventually asked for forgiveness. (Pg 150)
2 True/False Questions
Pepin the Short → A wide strip of Italy in the middle of the Italian boot or peninsula. The pope was the ruler or king, and its safety was guaranteed by Pepin. The land was given to the pope by Pepin in a formal deed called the Donation of Pepin.
Gregory VII → Also called Hilderbrand, became pope in 1073. He wanted to free the church from secular control. He was a monk of the Cluny movement, he saw the clergy's independence from civil powers as crutical to any reform in the church. He ruled against lay-investiture - the practice by which a high-ranking layperson such as an emperor could appoint bishops or abbots, investing them with powerand requiring their loyalty.