3 Written questions
3 Multiple choice questions
- A wide strip of Italy in the middle of the Italian boot or peninsula. The pope was the ruler or king, and its safety was guaranteed by Pepin. The land was given to the pope by Pepin in a formal deed called the Donation of Pepin.
- Was the empire Charlemagne was made emperor of by the pope because he defended him. This started a long trend of good relationships between kings and popes, and gave the pope a lot more power. It included mostly all of Europe
- In 1122 ended the controversy over lay investiture. The emperor agreed that rulers would no longer have the right to appoint bishops; all bishops would be elected and consecrated by church authority,
2 True/False questions
Pepin the Short → He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
Gregory VII → Also called Hilderbrand, became pope in 1073. He wanted to free the church from secular control. He was a monk of the Cluny movement, he saw the clergy's independence from civil powers as crutical to any reform in the church. He ruled against lay-investiture - the practice by which a high-ranking layperson such as an emperor could appoint bishops or abbots, investing them with powerand requiring their loyalty.