3 Written questions
3 Multiple choice questions
- A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.
- One of Pepin's sons. He organized a good part of Western Europe into a Frankish kingdom. He was a powerful general and a powerful king, and became known as Charlemagne. Which is French for "Charles the Great."
- He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
2 True/False questions
Henry IV- → The German emperor who objected to the pope's ruling. He was excommunicted by the pope. The pope told his subjects not to obey him. The pope eventually asked for forgiveness. (Pg 150)
Gregory VII → Also called Hilderbrand, became pope in 1073. He wanted to free the church from secular control. He was a monk of the Cluny movement, he saw the clergy's independence from civil powers as crutical to any reform in the church. He ruled against lay-investiture - the practice by which a high-ranking layperson such as an emperor could appoint bishops or abbots, investing them with powerand requiring their loyalty.