3 Written Questions
3 Multiple Choice Questions
- A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.
- He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
- The German emperor who objected to the pope's ruling. He was excommunicted by the pope. The pope told his subjects not to obey him. The pope eventually asked for forgiveness. (Pg 150)
2 True/False Questions
Holy Roman Empire → Was the empire Charlemagne was made emperor of by the pope because he defended him. This started a long trend of good relationships between kings and popes, and gave the pope a lot more power. It included mostly all of Europe
Gregory VII → Also called Hilderbrand, became pope in 1073. He wanted to free the church from secular control. He was a monk of the Cluny movement, he saw the clergy's independence from civil powers as crutical to any reform in the church. He ruled against lay-investiture - the practice by which a high-ranking layperson such as an emperor could appoint bishops or abbots, investing them with powerand requiring their loyalty.