What two things must be present in order to be scientific?
What is the scientific method?
a general set of procedures for gathering & interpreting information that limits sources of error & yields dependable results
What are the 7 components of scientific method?
1. literature review
2. research question
3. hypothesis (educated guess)
4. methods (describe your subject)
What are 3 types of measurement used to collect data?
1. Observational= direct, naturalistic, mediated
2. Verbal = survey/questionnaire, interview
3. psychological tests
What is direct observation?
observation with the naked eye
what is naturalistic observation?
observation of naturally occurring behavior without changing the behavior
what is mediated observation?
requires the use of special equipment or instrumentation (ex. EEG)
What are psychological tests?
assess an individual's standing relative to others on some mental or behavioral characteristics (Ex. IQ test)
What is historical research?
use of previously published findings to study psychological issues
What is descriptive research?
involves collecting data about conditions, attitudes, or characteristics of one subject or a group of subjects
Ex. case study, cross-sectional design, longitudinal design, sequential design
What is correlational research?
attempts to determine whether a relationship exists btw two or more quantifiable or measurable variables
a. degree of the relationship (strong, weak, no relationship)
b. direction of the relationship (positive, negative, no relationship)
c. cannot establish cause and effect (relationship is okay) Ex. caffeine & sleep
What is experimental research?
attempts to define a cause and effect relationship through group comparisons
a. independent variable = cause or treatment
b. dependent variable = what you are measuring, outcomes
what is a case study?
- descriptive research
- in depth investigation of just one person. usually something you have never seen before (ex. new disease).
- everything has started as a case study
what is a cross-sectional design?
one group at one point in time
what is a longitudinal design?
one group, follow over multiple periods of time
what is a sequential design?
combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
what is a independent variable?
cause or treatment (whatever you are giving. Ex. a new drug, watching tv does it cause aggression if you watch aggressive content?)
what is a dependent variable?
what you are measuring, outcomes
what is are the 4 main ethical safeguard designed to protect participants in research studies?
1. informed consent - know what is going to happen
2. subjects can leave at any time
3. debriefing at end of study = lets subject know the results/findings
4. everything confidential