Ch. 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the

thalamus.

Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem?

diencephalon

The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the

pons

As you ascend from the medulla oblongata to the cerebrum, the functions of each successive level become

both more complex and less crucial to visceral functions.

Each lateral ventricle communicates with the third ventricle through a(n)

interventricular foramen.

What contains a spiderweblike network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?

subarachnoid space

Which of these is not one of the main divisions of the adult brain?

pons
cerebrum
mesencephalon
diencephalon
prosencephalon(NOT)

The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the

medulla oblongata.

The cerebrum develops from the embryonic __________.

telencephalon

The cerebellum and pons develop from the

metencephalon.

The floor of the diencephalon is formed by the

hypothalamus.

A neural cortex is found on the surface of the

cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum.

The thin partition that separates the first and second ventricles is the

septum pellucidum.

The adult human brain contains almost ________ of the body's neural tissue.

97 percent

Male brains are typically ________ compared to female brains.

larger

During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?

telencephalon

Cerebrospinal fluid enters the subarachnoid space through the

lateral and median apertures.

Ependymal cells work to

remove waste products from CSF.
surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus.
secrete CSF into the ventricles.

Hydrocephalus or "water on the brain" may

result from excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid or from blockage of circulation of CSF.

Cerebrospinal fluid enters the blood circulation at the

superior sagittal sinus.

The dural fold that projects into the longitudinal fissure between cerebral hemispheres is called the

falx cerebri.

Cerebrospinal fluid

is secreted by ependymal cells.

The layer of the meninges that closely follows every gyrus and sulcus is the

pia mater.

The brain requires a substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliver blood to the brain are the

internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries.

Which of the following help to protect the brain?

the blood-brain barrier
the CSF
the cranial meninges
the bones of the skull
all of the above

Which of the following is a property of the blood-brain barrier?

It is absent in portions of the hypothalamus.
Astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries.
The capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions.
It is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds.
all of the above

What structure is covered by many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain?

pia mater

The cells that cover the outer surfaces of CNS endothelial cells are the

astrocytes.

Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?

provides ATP for impulse transmission

The choroid plexus produces CSF at a rate of about

500 mL/day .

The third and fourth ventricles are linked by a slender canal designated as the

mesencephalic aqueduct.

Specialized ________ cells form the secretory component of the choroid plexus.

ependymal

As CSF circulates, ________ between it and the interstitial fluid of the CNS is unrestricted between and across the ependyma.

diffusion

Which antibiotic enters the CNS without difficulty because it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier?

sulfadiazine

Two large venous sinuses, the sagittal sinuses, lie within a dural fold called the ________.

falx cerebri

The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in

the medulla oblongata.

The cardiovascular reflexes are based in the

the medulla oblongata.

The medulla oblongata regulates

blood pressure and respiration.

Which of these statements about the medulla oblongata is true?

It is part of the brain stem.
It connects the brain and spinal cord.
It contains centers for respiration.
All of these statements are true of the medulla oblongata

Which of these statements about the medulla oblongata is false?

It encloses the fourth ventricle.
It relays sensory and motor information.
It lies between the cervical cord and the pons.
None of these statements about the medulla oblongata is false.

Cardiovascular centers located in the ________ adjust the heart rate, the strength of cardiac contractions, and the flow of blood through the peripheral tissues.

medulla oblongata

The folds of the surface of the cerebellum are called ________.

folia

The pons exchanges information with the cerebellum over the __________.

middle cerebellar peduncle

The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as

ataxia.

The tract that links the cerebellum with the pons is the

middle cerebellar peduncle.

The mesencephalon contains the headquarters of the ________, a specialized component of the reticular formation that controls alertness and attention.

reticular activating system

The ________ receive visual input from the lateral geniculates.

superior colliculi

Stimulation of the reticular formation results in

increased consciousness.

Injury to this center in the mesencephalon may lead to Parkinson's disease.

substantia nigra

The medulla oblongata relays auditory information to the

inferior colliculi.

The regions of the mesencephalon that issue subconscious motor commands that affect upper limb position and background muscle tone are the

red nuclei.

Nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon are the

cerebral peduncles.

The ________ relay auditory information to the auditory cortex.

medial geniculates

The tectum of the mesencephalon contains the

superior and inferior colliculi.

The reflex movement of the head toward a loud noise is directed by the mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this?

inferior colliculi

Examination of a tissue sample from the central nervous system reveals many darkly pigmented cells. This tissue probably came from the

substantia nigra.

The ________, a narrow stalk, connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.

infundibulum

Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the

medulla oblongata.

Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?

secretes oxytocin
controls autonomic centers
regulates body temperature
produces ADH
all of the above

The ________ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems.

hypothalamus

Which of the following is not a component of the limbic system?

amygdaloid body
hippocampus
cingulate gyrus
globus pallidus (NOT)
fornix

Terry suffers from dissociation of memories from their emotional content as the result of an automobile accident. What system of the brain is probably damaged?

limbic system

Which of the following is not a property of the limbic system?

contains cerebral and diencephalic components
links conscious functions of the cerebral cortex with unconscious functions of the brain stem
located between the border of the cerebrum and diencephalon
functions in emotions, learning, and memory
functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather (NOT)

After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ________ lobe.

left frontal

Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to

play the piano.

Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of

Parkinson disease.

The cranial nerves that innervate the eye muscles are

III, IV, and VI.

The only sensation that is received directly by the cerebrum is

olfaction

Bob is struck on the left side of the head and is knocked unconscious. When he recovers consciousness, he can hear individual words but cannot understand the meaning of phrases or sentences. This implies damage to his

general interpretive area.

The primary motor cortex is the surface of the

precentral gyrus.

The general interpretive area

allows us to interpret what is read or heard.

The corpus callosum is composed of

commissural fibers.

Droopy eyelids and double vision can result from injury to the ________ nerve.

oculomotor

The highest levels of information processing occur in the

cerebrum

Difficulty in swallowing may be a sign of damage to which cranial nerve(s)?

vagus and glossopharyngeal

There are ________ pairs of cranial nerves.

12

The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the

longitudinal fissure.

A(n) ________ is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time.

electroencephalogram

The visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobe.

The right hemisphere is usually the dominant hemisphere.

False

The auditory cortex is located in the

temporal lobe

Within each hemisphere, deep to the floor of the lateral ventricle, you will find the

basal nuclei.

The putamen and globus pallidus are frequently considered to be subdivisions of the

lentiform nucleus.

Higher-order functions

combine both conscious and unconscious information processing.
can be adjusted over time based on experience.
involve complex interactions among areas of the cortex.
all of the above

________ is a condition resulting from an inflammation of a facial nerve.

Bell palsy

________ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read.

Aphasia

A person with a damaged visual association area may be

able to see letters but unable to associate them into words.

Parkinson disease is the result of

inadequate production of dopamine by substantia nigra neurons.

Damage to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus leads to which problem?

reduced ability to regulate body temperature

Tic douloureux is

also called trigeminal neuralgia.
a disorder of the maxillary and mandibular branches of nerve V.
characterized by almost totally debilitating pain.
triggered by contact with the lip, tongue, or gums.
all of the above

Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate and synapse on neurons in the

olfactory bulb.

A patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in speaking from a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?

hypoglossal

Which of the following symptoms would you associate with damage to the spinal accessory nerve?

weakness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

At the optic chiasm

axons from the nasal halves of each retina cross.

After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the

occipital lobe.

In most cases, the general interpretive center and the speech center are located in the ________ cerebral hemisphere.

left

The hemisphere of the brain that performs analytical tasks is called the ________ hemisphere.

dominant

A person who has difficulty comprehending and using written language suffers from the disorder known as ________.

dyslexia

Cortical regions that interpret sensory information or coordinate motor responses are called ________ areas.

association

Another term for trigeminal neuralgia is tic douloureux.

True

During the middle of the 20th century, a drastic procedure termed prefrontal lobotomy was used to treat a variety of mental illnesses.

True

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