As you ascend from the medulla oblongata to the cerebrum, the functions of each successive level become
both more complex and less crucial to visceral functions.
What contains a spiderweblike network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?
Which of these is not one of the main divisions of the adult brain?
During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
Ependymal cells work to
remove waste products from CSF.
surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus.
secrete CSF into the ventricles.
Hydrocephalus or "water on the brain" may
result from excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid or from blockage of circulation of CSF.
The dural fold that projects into the longitudinal fissure between cerebral hemispheres is called the
The brain requires a substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliver blood to the brain are the
internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries.
Which of the following help to protect the brain?
the blood-brain barrier
the cranial meninges
the bones of the skull
all of the above
Which of the following is a property of the blood-brain barrier?
It is absent in portions of the hypothalamus.
Astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries.
The capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions.
It is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds.
all of the above
What structure is covered by many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain?
Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
provides ATP for impulse transmission
The third and fourth ventricles are linked by a slender canal designated as the
As CSF circulates, ________ between it and the interstitial fluid of the CNS is unrestricted between and across the ependyma.
Which antibiotic enters the CNS without difficulty because it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier?
Two large venous sinuses, the sagittal sinuses, lie within a dural fold called the ________.
Which of these statements about the medulla oblongata is true?
It is part of the brain stem.
It connects the brain and spinal cord.
It contains centers for respiration.
All of these statements are true of the medulla oblongata
Which of these statements about the medulla oblongata is false?
It encloses the fourth ventricle.
It relays sensory and motor information.
It lies between the cervical cord and the pons.
None of these statements about the medulla oblongata is false.
Cardiovascular centers located in the ________ adjust the heart rate, the strength of cardiac contractions, and the flow of blood through the peripheral tissues.
The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as
The mesencephalon contains the headquarters of the ________, a specialized component of the reticular formation that controls alertness and attention.
reticular activating system
The regions of the mesencephalon that issue subconscious motor commands that affect upper limb position and background muscle tone are the
The reflex movement of the head toward a loud noise is directed by the mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this?
Examination of a tissue sample from the central nervous system reveals many darkly pigmented cells. This tissue probably came from the
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the
Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?
controls autonomic centers
regulates body temperature
all of the above
Which of the following is not a component of the limbic system?
globus pallidus (NOT)
Terry suffers from dissociation of memories from their emotional content as the result of an automobile accident. What system of the brain is probably damaged?
Which of the following is not a property of the limbic system?
contains cerebral and diencephalic components
links conscious functions of the cerebral cortex with unconscious functions of the brain stem
located between the border of the cerebrum and diencephalon
functions in emotions, learning, and memory
functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather (NOT)
After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ________ lobe.
Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to
play the piano.
Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of
Bob is struck on the left side of the head and is knocked unconscious. When he recovers consciousness, he can hear individual words but cannot understand the meaning of phrases or sentences. This implies damage to his
general interpretive area.
Difficulty in swallowing may be a sign of damage to which cranial nerve(s)?
vagus and glossopharyngeal
A(n) ________ is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time.
The putamen and globus pallidus are frequently considered to be subdivisions of the
combine both conscious and unconscious information processing.
can be adjusted over time based on experience.
involve complex interactions among areas of the cortex.
all of the above
A person with a damaged visual association area may be
able to see letters but unable to associate them into words.
Damage to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus leads to which problem?
reduced ability to regulate body temperature
Tic douloureux is
also called trigeminal neuralgia.
a disorder of the maxillary and mandibular branches of nerve V.
characterized by almost totally debilitating pain.
triggered by contact with the lip, tongue, or gums.
all of the above
Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate and synapse on neurons in the
A patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in speaking from a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?
Which of the following symptoms would you associate with damage to the spinal accessory nerve?
weakness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the
In most cases, the general interpretive center and the speech center are located in the ________ cerebral hemisphere.
The hemisphere of the brain that performs analytical tasks is called the ________ hemisphere.
A person who has difficulty comprehending and using written language suffers from the disorder known as ________.
Cortical regions that interpret sensory information or coordinate motor responses are called ________ areas.