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Galton

He believed that intelligence was a general ability that could be measured by simple tests

Binet

He studied the intellectual development of children and developed intelligence testing/mental age

Spearman

He was influenced by Galton. He supported the idea of intelligence testing and found that if you scored high on one test you'd score high on another

Wechsler

He developed IQ test with both performance and verbal sections. Separate tests for adults and children

Gardner

Proposed that everyone has seven intelligences and that each works separately

Goleman

Made popular the idea of emotional intelligence, the ability to understand your own and others' emotions

Schema

An idea about what something is and how to deal with it

Accommodation

Changing our schemas to include new experiences and information that cannot fit into existing schemas

Assimilation

Including new experiences and information into current schemas

Polarisation

The strengthening of ideas in individuals when in a group where people have similar attitudes

Obedience

Changing behaviour in response to an instruction or direct request by an authority figure

Conformity

Adjusting one's behavior or attitudes to coincide with a group standard

Piaget's four stages of development

Sensori-Motor (birth-2)
Pre-operational (2-7)
Concrete operational (7-11)
Formal operational (11+)

Sensori-motor stage

Babies develop their understanding of the world by interacting with it - touching, looking, listening

Pre-operational stage

Children are unable to think logically and are egocentric

Concrete operational stage

Children can think logically and can carry out mental operation, provided they are working with materials

Formal operational stage

Children are capable of abstract and logical thinking

Observational learning

Watching other people and copying their behaviour (modelling)

Social facilitation

Achieving better results when other people are around (generally simpler tasks)

Social inhibition

Achieving worse results when other people are around (generally complex tasks)

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