Geography Exam Middle East

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Desalination

process of removing salt from sea water

Islam/Koran/Five Pillars/Kabba/Allah/Muslim/Muhammad/Mosque

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Monotheism/Polytheism

monotheism - belief in one God
polytheism - belief in more than one God

Zionism - who, idea, belief, movement

1. who - Jewish people who believed Israel was their holy land
2. ideas/beliefs - movement/migration to escape, establish a Jewish state
3. worldwide Jewish treatment - poor, harsh, discriminated against

Balfour Declaration - who/when (cause and effect)

1. Balfour declaration - Britain's support for the Jewish homeland in Palestine
2. causes - allies, Zionism, immigration
3. effects - betrayal, anger, unfair, Jewish population is pleased

Self-determination

a country's right to decide their own political future

Partition of Palestine - reasons/results

reasons - British leave, compromise/agreement, control will be lost if they don't do something about it
results - Arabs have very little coast and very little share of the land, thought that all of their land was worthless

Arab-Israeli War/Six-Day War - geographical impacts

Palestinians lost a ton of land as well as the West Bank and Gaza Strip

West Bank/Gaza Strip

"occupied" territories in Israel, originally to be Palestinian lands under the partition

PLO

name - Palestinian Liberation Organization
who - Palestinians in exile government
role - destroy Israel through attacks, terrorism, and to liberate Palestine

Palestinians/Israelis

1. Palestinians - early settlers, homeland was Palestine, ancestors that lived here
2. Jews - ancestors also settled here, believed that Palestine was their holy land, they have lived here for centuries

Mandate

land to be governed by outside power

Partition

a division into separate parts

Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) - location, importance

stretches from modern day Iraq to Israel; important because it was the birthplace of both agriculture and civilization

Tigris/Euphrates - geographical impacts, location, advantages

1. location - Iraq
2. geographical impacts/advantages - fertile plain,urban centers, irrigation makes them have better growing and more successful crops, electricity, freshwater provides water to drink and the continuation of an agricultural society

Kurds

largest stateless minority group in the world

Petroleum - what, impacts on the Middle East

oil, impacts include wealth, greed, development, infrastructure, and exporting

Embargo

restriction on trade with other countries

Confessionalism

system where power is distributed evenly

Endorheic vs. Exorheic Basins

endorheic - drainage basin that retains water and allows no outflow
exorheic - basin where water flows out

Hypersaline Lake

landlocked, containing large amounts of salts

Dead Sea - characteristics, location, geographical importance/benefits

lowest point on earth, so salty nothing can survive in it, hypersaline, endorheic, part of the Great Rift Valley, therapeutic properties, healing powers, minerals

OPEC - who, purpose

OPEC is Venezuela, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Iran that get together to discuss how much oil to produce and at what price to sell it; cartel; monopoly; has the power to regulate

Oasis - formation, importance

a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)

Aquifer

underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc

Peak Oil - idea and meaning

when oil extraction rates max out and begin to decline, the demand and cost for oil will go upwards, and the supply will go downwards

Potash

a mineral used in explosives and fertilizer and is extracted from the Dead Sea

Suez Canal - location and importance

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Sinai Peninsula

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Empty Quarter - location, geography, impacts

Arabian Peninsula, largest sand desert in the world, not one single body of fresh water, the world's largest known petroleum reserves

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