Troops of Nicholas II fire on a peaceful
Sunday procession of workers at the Winter Palace who sought to present a petition for better working and living conditions. Tsar was not even present in St. Petersburg. This was a turning point in Russian history; Russians came to believe that they could no longer trust the tsar or his government.
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power.
Consisted of socialists, anarchists, and Polish nationalists. Founded by British and French trade unionists. Disbanded because of pressures from French authorities. Had organized and gathered statistics, kept labor unions, informed others of mutual problems, provided a form to debate socialist doctrine, and had proclaimed its influence over current events. From this group's efforts, Marxism became the most important kind of socialism.
Appointed by Napoleon III to oversee the urban reconstruction of Paris. The construction of the sewer system was a famous part of his project.
The external and internal process of freeing the Jewish people of Europe, including recognition of their rights as equal citizens, and the formal granting of citizenship as individuals
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.
Approved workers and trade unions' efforts to reform the conditions of labor within the existing political and economic processes. However, in his private writings, he criticized reformist activity. From the activity of the First international, his socialism became the most important type of socialism.
The typical 19th century middle-class woman enjoyed a great deal of domestic luxury but her life was centered on home and family
Population Trends and Migration
The development of suburbs was a response to:
1. the reorganization of cities for business and government purposes
2. increasing congestion of urban areas
3. improved railway systems connecting city to suburbs
4. the clearing of slums
Led Russian into the industrial age. Was finance minister. Pursued a policy of planned economic development by issuing protective tariffs, high taxes, and putting Russia's currency on the gold standard. He helped to build the railroad systems which linked the far flung regions of the Russian empire and also stimulated industry. He remodeled the state bank and encouraged the establishment of savings banks. Also established a financial relationship with the French money market, allowing Russia to finance its modernization program with French loans. Favored heavy industries.
Otto Van Bismack
Brought universal male suffrage to German Empire in 1871. Believed socialism would undermine German politics and society. condemned the SPD. Had used assassination attempt on William I to get antisocialist laws passed. The measures surpressed organization, meetings, newspapers, and other public activities of this group. The repression had bad outcomes. So then, adopted welfare laws, including health insurance, accident insurance, and old age and disability pensions hoping to appease socialists this way.
French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism. Saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. Founded "sociology." Influenced Realpolitik
Contagious Diseases Acts
English prostitutes were subject this which required woman to undergo an immediate internal medical examination for venereal disease.
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
A set of French laws, which established first free education (1881) then mandatory and laic education (1882). Proposed by the (Republican) Minister of Public Instruction Jules Ferry, they were a crucial step in the grounding of the Third Republic
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church, (cultural struggles) An exetreme church state conflict waged by Bismark in Germany during the 1870's in response to a perceived threat to German political unity from the Roman Catholic church.
Modernism in Literature
A literary movement of the early and mid-twentieth century that portrayed objective
reality as perhaps unknowable and sought to reflect new, experimental, and subjective perceptions of reality, along with a sense of human isolation and inability to communicate. (Associated with Sigmund Freud).
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest. (Charles Darwin)
(1844-1900) hated Christians. He thinks Christianity is harmful- not focusing on what is important. He believes Christians hate life It betrays what is essential to life. he says "God remains dead" meaning God has outlived his usefulness. Dislikes democracy as well.
Pope Leo XIII
wrote Rerum Novarum; opened the Vatican Library for historical research; his diplomatic skills helped the Church become less defensive and more willing to dialogue in the modern age. Cared about social issues and justice.
Pope Pius IX
Wrote Syllabus of Errors in which he strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty, denying that "the Roman pontiff can and ought to reconcile and align himself with progress, liberalism, and modern civilization." Stressed papal infallibility.
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.
(1891) Papal encyclical of Leo XIII (1878-1903) that upheld the right of private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism.
A Room of One's Own
Important to 20th century feminist thought; Virginia Woolf argues that women need certain conditions to write, and the conditions she mentions have been denied to women historically.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903).
English novelist and essay writer who is regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. During the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary society and a member of the Bloomsbury Group. Her most famous works include the novels Mrs. Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927), and Orlando (1928), and the book-length essay A Room of One's Own (1929) with its famous dictum, "a woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction".
This women came under the influence of Grigori Rasputin, a mystic who was later assassinated. Nicholas II's wife.
Representative for France at the Versailles Peace Conference. Made up one of the Big Four.
The 1904 "gentleman's agreement" between France and Britain establishing a close understanding.
David Lloyd George
Representative for Britain at the Versailles Peace Conference. Made up one of the Big Four.
Paul Von Hindenburg
German field marshal who appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933. In March he signed the Enabling Act of 1933 which gave special powers to Hitler's government.
The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Originally used as a radio broadcast tower now serves as a viewing platform and a restaurant for tourists. Built by Gustav Effeil.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary killed by a terrorist from Bosnia who wanted Bosnia to break away from Austria-Hungary to join Serbia. His assassination sparked WWI.
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Tsar Nicholas II
Last Tsar of Russia during WWI. Was weak, incompetent, and suspected of being under the domination of his German wife and his peasant faith healer Rasputin. Later took personal leadership of Russian forces on the eastern front and his absence from the capital allowed corrupt ministers to discredit him. As strikes and revolts increased, he abdicated and the government fell into the hands of the Duma, who formed a provisional government composed of Constitutional Democrats (Cadets).
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy.
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
a Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
Treaty of Versailles
Stated that Germany army was to be reduced to 100,000 men and no tanks were allowed, Germany was only allowed 6 ships and no submarines, Germany was not allowed an air force, the Rhineland area was to be kept free of German military personnel and weapons, Germany was not allowed to unite with Austria. Colonies would be controlled by the League of Nations, and Germany will be forced to make reparations, or payments to the nations that won the war.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Warned Germany to end targeting civilian Wilson ships, but when it didn't, declared war on
Germany. Expressed that the reason for the U.S entry into the war was "to make the world safe for democracy". One of the Big Four. Successfully created League of Nations from Fourteen Points.
the lower house of the parliament of the Irish Free State.
French Occupation of the Ruhr
Between 1923 and 1925, by troops from France and Belgium. Was a response to the failure of the German Weimar Republic under Chancellor Cuno to pay reparations in the aftermath of World War I...
Lateran Accord of 1929
After the Italian state annexed Rome and made it the capital, the papacy confined itself to the Vatican and remained hostile to the Italian state until the Lateran Accord of 1929.
Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Entente Had much to lose from the revision of the
Versailles treaty. France makes military alliances with these states and with Poland.
Reelected as prime minister again and his Labour govt. took office. Was conservative and wanted to slash the budget, reduce govt. salaries, and cut unemployment benefits. Formed a coalition ministry called the National Government. Was believed to have sold out and was rejected by his fellow party members.
Motherhood for the Nation in Fascist Italy
Nazi Platform of 1920
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) An attempt to rebuild agriculture and economy.
Irish Republic Movement. The Irish Party in Parliament becomes this after the execution of leaders of the Easter Monday Uprising. Refused to attend Parliament in Westminster after they won a majority of the seats, but instead formed their own Parliament, the Dail Eireann. Declared Irish independence in January 21, 1919. Created the IRA (Irish Republican Army) who fought a guerrilla war with the British. The treaty that ends the war results in a division between the Irish moderates and diehards. Eventually abolishes oath of allegiance to the monarch.
Southeastern Europe: Royal Dictatorships
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army.
Eamon De Valera
The president of the IRA and Sinn Fein during the Irish War of Independence. He was teh only leader of the Easter Rising to not be executed because he was an American citizen (his execution would damage any hope of a US-British Alliance in WWI). He openly opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, and faced off against Michael Collins in the Irish Civil War in 1922, after the treaty was ratified by the Dail. He would eventually become the first president of the independent Irish Republic.
Collectivization of Agriculture
As an extension of the his Five Year Plan (initiated in 1928), Stalin pursued a policy of destroying the culture of the peasant village and replacing it with one organized around huge collective farms. The peasants resisted and were killed, starved, or driven into Siberia in numbers that can only be estimated but which may have been as high as eight million.
Depression and Government Policy
Stalin's mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against. Method of building socialism.
Wanted to bring all the Germans together into a Hitler single nation. On the eve of the Second World
War, he violates the provisions of Versailles by: rearming Germany, uniting Germany and Austria, rearming the Rhineland. Takes Sudetenland from Czechs, and promises not to take the rest of the Czech territory but does it anyway when he occupies Prague. Divides Poland among himself and Stalin. Despite the non-aggression pact, plans to invade Russia anyway (Operation Barbarossa).
Institute for Industrial Reconstruction
Provided loans to businesses in financial difficulty, thus establishing partial gov. ownership of businesses.
Was Stalin's protégé and slight opponent, as well as the head of the Leningrad Party. His assassination in 1934 was used to start Great Purges on all political opponents of Stalin. Thousands were arrested and many expelled from the party and sent to labor camps. At the time, it was believed certain people who opposed the government murdered him, and Stalin accused them accordingly, but it is now believed Stalin did it because he feared loss of power.
A combination of both private and goverment ownership and control of the means of production
The organization having central political authority in a nation. The representative unit of political organization.
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
An alliance between the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals formed for the May 1936 French elections. It was largely successful, increasing the Communists in parliament from 10 to 72, and the Socials up to 146, making them the largest party in France.
The union of Germany and Austria. It violated the Treaty of Versailles that Germany had agreed to.
Battle of Britain
Major air battle between Germany and Britain. Germany bombs fighter planes and airfields using the Luftwaffe, or German air force. In revenge for British bombing raids on German cities, the Luftwaffe starts to bomb London consistently. Did not destroy British morale. Additionally, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) is able to defend the British Isles and destroyed more than twice as many enemy planes as they had lost. Hitler lost the battle and had to abandon plans for invasion.
Lightning warfare", a new style of attack used by the Germans that employed fast-moving,
massed armored columns supported by airpower. This type of attack was used when the Germans invaded Poland.
German Attack on Russia
Hitler invaded Russia destroying most tanks and planes.
Hitler rearms the Rhineland. This then violates the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Agreement.
(German for "habitat" or literally "living space") served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union not to fight one another, which allowed Hitler to concentrate on a one front war once the war started.
Versailles gave Poland the territory of Poznania and much of Pomeriania. Led to the Baltic Sea and devided East Prussia from the rest of Germany.
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Hitler rearms this area regardless of the terms of the Versailles Treaty and the Locarno Agreement.
Spanish Civil War
Made the line dividing Fascists side and Western Democratic side in Europe more clear. After the Falangists, Spanish fascists, lose the election, they lead an army against the republic. Germany and Italy support them, which brought Germany and Italy closer together. Fascists win the war due to appeasement from France and Britain.
The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
"under people"; word used by Nazi racial ideology to describe "inferior people", especially "the masses from the East" (Jews, Gypsies, Poles, Slavs, Russians, Serbs, Ukrainians, etc.).
Airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin.
Soviets blockade this city from Allied access when Allies decide to create a democratic government in Western Germany. Allies are able to send materials to the city through the Berlin Airlift. Stalin then lifts this blockade without warning a year later.
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
US policy with the purpose of resisting Soviet expansion. Basically containing and controlling their expansion. Plus influence in the hopes the Soviet Union would eventually collapse from its own foreign oppression. Marked a major departure in American foreign policy.
Cuban Missile Crisis
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
The action of changing from colonial to independent status. An example would include India's colonies separating from Britain.
The relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Geneva Accords of 1954
Agreement between France and Vietminh which "temporarily" partitioned Vietnam along the 17th Parallel (communist north and French-backed south) and created the neutral states of Laos and Cambodia. The two Vietnams were supposed to hold elections to unify the country within two years, but the US intervened and aided South Vietnam until its prime minister, Ngo Dinh Diem, repressed political opposition and rigged the election for himself.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms. Became premier of the USSR in 1985. His primary goal was to revive the Soviets' economy and raise the country's standard of living. Introduced perestroika and glasnost. Later told his Central Committee to abandon its monopoly of power.
Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations demanding non-communist parties be legalized; turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout the country. Was a revolt against Soviet domination in Hungary, which is unsuccessful. Nagy, the premier, is executed and is replaced by Janos Kadar.
Invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet Union invades Afghanistan in 1979. U.S. aides Afghan rebels. Then , October 2001, the United States began bombing Taliban centers in Afghanistan in response to the attack on September 11, 2001 of the World Trade Center in New York.
Israel Declares Independence
The official date given by the United Nations in their partition vote for the creation of the two new entities was May 15th, 1948. Thus, May 14th was to be the last day of the British Mandate. At 4 p.m., the British lowered their flag and immediately the Jews raised their own. Almost immediately five Arab countries declared war and Egypt bombed Tel Aviv.
President of the United States from 1969 to 1974 who followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with China. In the face of likely impeachment for the Watergate scandal, he resigned. Also wanted to resolve relations with Vietnam by withdrawing troops.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Probably his greatest accomplishment was to bring down the Soviet Union. He embarked the US on a massive military build-up, spending spree that the USSR simply could not keep up with. Coupled with his friendship with Premier Mikhail Gorbachev - the USSR broke into many individual countries. Advocated supply-side economics arguing that tax cuts reduced govnt. spending, would increase investment by the private sector, and lead to increased production, jobs and prosperity
Egypt tries to nationalize the Suez Canal by taking it away from a private company controlled by the British and French. Egypt then attacks Israel, and the British and French, who fear loss of access to Middle Eastern oil, intervene. The US and Soviet Union protest against this, and the war ends quickly. This even proved that without US support, the nations of Western Europe could no longer impose their will on the rest of the world.
Americanization of Europe
Europe began picking up traits and franchises of America such as McDonalds and Starbucks. Europe saw that America was doing well economically and wanted success as well. Europeans worried that Europe would lose it's unique culture.
A Swiss Protestant theologian who said people were sinful and that religious truth was made know to humans only through God's grace, and people just had to accept God as true and be obedient. Associated with Neo-Orthodoxy
Being and Nothingness
Sartre 1943, the universe is an irrational meaningless fear; existence is absurd; life has no sense, purpose, or explanation; death makes life more intolerable and ridiculous.
Created from the six members of the Coal and Steel Community who signed the Treaty of Rome. Sought to achieve the eventual elimination of tariffs, a free flow of capital and labor, and similar wage and social benefits in all their countries. Was very successful (tariffs abolished; trade and labor migration grew), to point where other countries sought to join or copy its policies. Was a reaction against the influence of the US and USSR.
Charles De Gaulle
French General who Led the French resistance. Organized the Free French military forces that battled the Nazis until France was liberated in 1944.
Demand for Calculating Machines
Any of various systems of units for measuring electricity and magnetism
External and Internal Migration
Political movement and party that arose in several western European nations in the 1970's that opposed unfettered free market economies and unchecked industrial pollution. Began as a movement of radical student groups in Western Germany. Developed into a political party concerned with the environment. Anticapitalist, blamed business and pollution. Avoided violence and mass demonstrations.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries. Military alliance of Western European nations and US & Canada
Return to orthodox Christianity without having to be historically grounded. Somewhat of a theological rediscovery of biblical doctrines, but with the modem naturalistic presuppositions. A theological movement including Karl Barth, and others. It opposed liberal theology and stressed the reinterpretation of Reformation themes such as God's transcendence, human sinfulness, and the centrality of Christ, giving importance to the fact that faith is not without struggles- much like life. It was dominant in Europe and America after World War II until the 1960's. Focus was Jesus not the Bible.
A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.