Chapter 7 Study Questions

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Deciding how an object most probably or most sensibly belongs to a concept, given the facts at hand, has been called___.

Relying on the degree of category membership

Clayton looking for a house wants brick but sees a wooden one with better floor plan, cheaper and nice school district, he picks wooden house. His decision making style involved the use of a ____.

compensatory model

Phonemes are grouped together to form______.

morphemes

Stereotyped communications about an animal current state are called____.

signs

The tendency to perceive and approach problems in certain ways is called _____.

Mental set

Linguistic determinism suggests that____.

One's language determines the pattern of one's thinking and view of the world

Each of the following is an effective strategy for becoming a better problem-solver EXCEPT___.

Develop functional fixedness

A heuristic strategy that combines hill-climbing and sub goals is ___.

Means-end analysis

Two groups are given a problem to solve. First group is given a spatial problem and other group has a time problem. The spatial group solved their problem faster because___.

visualized their problem & the time group didn't.

The smallest meaningful units in a language are __.

Morphemes

When showed a picture of a lion and bird, he knows the lion isn't a bird because it don't have wings, beak etc. He bases this on __.

Category membership

An excited toddler yells our "Give toy!" instead of saying "Daddy, give me the toy." This is an example of ___.

Telegraphic speech

Which of the following is not true of trial and error?

It is one of the most complex strategies for solving problems.

When a person thinks of a concept such as "bird", the person usually___.

Thinks of a prototype of a bird

The particular words and phrases that make up a sentence are is ___ structure.

Surface

Which of the following is not true?

Images give meaning to new experiences.

Pete wants to be rich. So he evaluate his investments every year, if they don't make him rich then he will chose better strategies. This is called__.

Trial and error

Rules of thumb that do not guarantee a solution but may help bring one within reach are called__.

Heuristics

Laboratory experiments suggest that animals have __.

some cognitive capacities

The first step in solving a problem is called problem____.

Representation

Nonhuman animals communicate primarily through ___.

Signs

According to Chomsky, people are able to go from surface structure to deep structure through process called ____.

Transformation

Maureen is completing a chemistry project which must be written up using the metric system, but her beaker is scaled in ounces. The best solution strategy for her problem involves __.

Algorithm

There is a rule in the English language that adjectives come before nouns. This rule is an example of ___.

Syntax

A mental model containing the most typical feature is a concept is called a ___.

Compensatory model

The rigid notion that old people who live in institutions have nothing to contribute to society often prevents them from optimizing what talents and skills they do have. This is an example of___.

Functional fixedness

The tendency to view outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we know the outcome is called___.

Hindsight bias

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