From 1775 to 1799, Napoleon rose from relative obscurity to an officer in the French army to become..?
master of France
Where was Napoleon born?
What type of school did Napoleon go to?
In 1795, royalist rebels marched on what?
Who defended the National Convention in 1795 when royalist rebels marched on the National Convention?
In 1796, the Directory appointed Napoleon to lead a French army against what?
Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia
What country did Napoleon fail to conquer which sent him back to France in a hurry in late 1790s?
In 1799, what form of French government lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people?
Napoleon seized power in November 1799 in France in a coup d'etat and established what type of government?
What does coup d'etat mean?
blow to the state
In 1800, a plebiscite was held to approve what?
a new constitution
Napoleon kept many of the changes that came with what?
Napoleon wanted to strengthen the central government and achieve some of the goals of what?
How was Napoleon an enlightened ruler?
He set up an efficient method of tax collection, established a national banking system, took steps to end corruption and inefficiency in government, set up lycees, signed a concordat with Pope Pius VII, and made the Napoleonic Code (uniform set of laws and eliminated many injustices)
What was the Napoleonic Code?
A uniform set of laws, eliminated many injustices, limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights, and restored slavery in the French colonies of the Caribbean
In 1804, who was declared emperor of France with the support of the pope?
Napoleon (he placed the crown on his head- more powerful than Church)
What ideas led to the revolutions in the Americas?
The ideas of the French Revolution (they wanted the same privileges as the people of France); enslaved Africans wanted their freedom. Also, if their mother countries could not rule themselves, why should the mother countries be ruling them.
Napoleon turned his imperial ambitions where after his failure in the New World?
Europe (he already had Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy and a puppet gov set up in Switzerland)
Britain persuaded what countries to join them against France against Napoleon?
Russia, Austria, Sweden
What was the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805?
When Napoleon crushed everyone in 1805 (Britain and its allies)
Who was France's only major enemy under Napoleon?
What was the name of the one major battle that Napoleon lost? What type of battle was it? Who did he lose it to?
Battle of Trafalgar; naval; Britain
By 1812, what areas were free from Napoleon's control?
Britain, Portugal, Sweden, Ottoman Empire
Who were Napoleon's allies? Who were his puppet countries after the first decade of 1800s?
Russia, Prussia, Austria; Spain, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, most of German kingdoms
How many years was Napoleon able to maintain control of France at its greatest extent?
5 (from 1807 to 1812)
What did Napoleon set up in 1806 to prevent all trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations?
What was the Continental System?
The policy of Napoleon's blockade that was supposed to make continental Europe more self-sufficient (and destroy Great Britain's commercial and industrial economy)
What was Napoleon's first mistake?
The blockade against the British; it was not tight enough
What was Napoleon's second mistake?
In 1808, he sent an invasion force through Spain to get Portugal to accept the Continental System; the Spanish people protested and Napoleon put his brother on the throne; nationalistic feelings rose; guerrillas in Spain struck at the French army
What was the Peninsular War?
The Spanish guerrillas with the help of the British in Spain (on the Iberian Peninsula)
Like the Spanish, what other conquered countries turned against the French?
What was Napoleon's most disastrous mistake?
In 1812, Napoleon marched into Russia (because Alexander I, the Russian czar, refused to stop selling grain to Britain- the Russians practiced scorched-earth policy)
What was the major battle in Russia between the Russians and Napoleon France on September 7, 1812? Who won? However, what had the Russians done?
Battle of Borodino; French; the Russians had burned Moscow (their "holy city")
Although the French won the Battle of Borodino against the Russians, what greatly injured the French army?
Napoleon turned back to France in October, and the harsh temperature as well as Russian raiders killed most of Napoleon's army
After the Battle of Borodino and Napoleon's return to France, what countries had joined forces against him?
Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria (even though Mary Louise of Austria was married to Napoleon)
Where did Napoleon face the allied armies of European powers? Who won and why?
Leipzig (in October 1913 in Germany); the allied forces; Napoleon's army was inexperienced
By January of 1914, who was wining the war (French or the allied forces)?
the allied forces (they were pushing steadily towards Paris)
In about March of 1814, what two peoples led their troops through the French capital?
King Frederick William III (of Prussia) and Czar Alexander I (of Russia)
Why did the French stop fighting when the allied forces marched through Paris in 1814?
Napoleon's generals refused to keep fighting (In April 1814, Napoleon accepted the terms of surrender and gave up his thrown)
What island was Napoleon banished to in 1814?
Elba (off the Italian coast)
Who became the ruler of France in 1814 after Napoleon was banished?
Louis XVIII (Louis XVI's brother)
Was Louis XVIII popular? If so, why or why not?
No; the people thought he wanted to undo the Revolution's land reforms
When Napoleon escaped his banishment in 1815, what battle finally ended his bid for power?
Battle of Waterloo (all of the major European powers fought him)
Napoleon's last bid for power is called what? why?
Hundred Days; he only escaped for 100 days
Where was Napoleon sent after the Battle of Waterloo?
St. Helena's (in South Atlantic0
What was the goal of the Congress of Vienna?
To set up policies to achieve long-lasting peace and stability on the continent after the defeat of Napoleon
What were the five great powers at the Congress of Vienna?
Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, France
What were Metternich's ideas on democratic government?
He distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution
What were Metternich's 3 goals?
prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries, restore a balance of power, restore Europe's royal families to their thrones
What were the land changes made during the Congress of Vienna?
Kingdom of Netherlands was made, the German confederation was made (although loosely and dominated by Austria), Switzerland was recognized as an independent nation, Genoa was given to the Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy
Although the leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France after Napoleon, they did not want to leave it powerless. They recognized that if they severely punished France, they might encourage the French to take revenge. How is this different from the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany was fully blamed for World War I and made to pay; the German people did want revenge and Germany had severe problems as a cause of its poor economy; part of the reason Hitler was accepted was because he greatly transformed the economy
What was the principle of legitimacy during the Congress of Vienna?
as many as possible of the rulers whom Napoleon had driven from their throne be restored to power
Why did the Congress of Vienna want to restore the monarchs to their thrones?
They believed that it would stabilize political relations among nations
What was the Holly Alliance of 1815?
Czar Alexander I, Emperor Francis I, and king Frederick William III pledged to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of revolution
What was the Concert of Europe?
A series of alliances devised by Metternich that ensured that nations would help one another in any revolutions broke out
Could the ideas created during the French Revolution be put down after Congress of Vienna?
Who were royalist peninsulares?
colonists born in Spain who tried to regain control of colonial governments (after Napoleon deposed the king of Spain)
What stopped the peninsulares in America from taking control of government?
Creoles (full blooded Spaniards, born in Latin America) attempted to retain and expand their power
What is a peninsulares?
full spanish born in Spain, living in Latin America
What is a creole?
full spanish, born in Latin America
What is a mestizo
Spanish and Native American
As a result of the power struggle between the peninsulares and creoles in the Americas, the Spanish king took steps to tighten control over the American colonies. This caused what?
The Mexicans to gain independence and other Latin American colonies to declare independence.
What will cause the Congress of Vienna to crack?
The smaller states were unhappy; nationalistic cracks will show; the working classes, peasants, and bourgeoisie felt left out; new ideas had been formed and could not be put down (a new era had begun)