Science Final Exam Vocabulary

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Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

Substance

matter with a composition that is always the same

Compound

a substance containing atoms of two or more different elements chemically bonded together

Mixture

matter that can vary in composition

Heterogeneous Mixture

a mixture in which substances are not evenly mixed

Homogeneous Mixture

a mixture in which two or more substances are evenly mixed but not bonded together

Dissolve

to form a solution by mixing evenly

Physical Property

a characteristic of matter that you can observe or measure without changing the identity of the matter

Mass

the amount of matter in an object

Density

the mass per unit volume of a substance

Solubility

the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature and pressure

Physical Change

a change in the size, shape, form, or state of matter that does not change the matter's identity

Chemical Property

the ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more new substances

Chemical Change

a change in matter in which the substances that make up the matter change into other substances with different chemical and physical properties

Concentration

the amount of a particular solute in a given amount of solution

Solid

matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume

Liquid

matter with a definite volume but no definite shape

Gas

matter that has no definite volume and no definite shape

Viscosity

a measurement of a liquid's resistence to flow

Surface Tension

the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid

Vapor

the gas state of a substance that is normally a solid or a liquid at room temperature

Kinetic Energy

energy due to motion

Temperature

the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a material

Thermal Energy

the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the particles that make up an object

Vaporization

the change in state from a liquid to a gas

Evaporation

the process of a liquid changing to a gas at the surface of the liquid

Condensation

the change of state from a gas to a liquid

Sublimation

the process of changing directly from a solid to a gas

Deposition

the process of changing directly from a gas to a solid

Kinetic Molecular Theory

an explanation of how particles in matter behave

Pressure

the amount of force per unit area applied to an object's surface

Boyle's Law

the law that pressure of a gas increases if the volume decreases and pressure of a gas decreases if the volume increases, when temperature is constant

Charles's Law

the law that volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, if the pressure is constant

Atom

a small particle that is the building block of matter; the smallest piece of an element that still represents that element

Electron

a negatively charged particle that occupies the space in an atom outside the nucleus

Proton

positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom

Neutron

a neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom

Electron Cloud

the region surrounding an atom's nucleus where one or more electrons are most likely to be found

Nucleus

the region in the center of an atom where most of an atom's mass and positive charge are concentrated

Atomic Number

the number of protons in an atom of an element

Isotopes

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

Mass Number

the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Average Atomic Mass

the average mass of the element's isotopes, weighted according to the abundance of each isotope

Radioactive

any element that spontaneously emits radiation

Nuclear Decay

a process that occurs when an unstable atomic nucleus changes into another more stable nucleus by emitting radiation

Ion

an atom that is no longer neutral because it has lost or gained valence electrons

Periodic Table

a chart of the elements into rows and columns according to their physical and chemical properties

Group

a column on the periodic table

Period

a row on the periodic table

Metal

an element that is generally shiny, is easily pulled into wires or hammered into thin sheets, and is a good conductor of electricity and thermal energy

Luster

the ability of a substance to reflect or absorb light at its surface

Ductility

the ability of a substance to be pulled into thin wires

Conductivity

the ability of a substance to transfer heat or electricity

Malleability

the ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into sheets

Alkali Metal

an element in group 1 on the periodic table

Alkaline Earth Metal

an element in group 2 on the periodic table

Transition Element/Transition Metal

an element in groups 3-12 on the periodic table

Nonmetal

a element that has no metallic properties

Halogen

an element in group 17 on the periodic table

Noble Gas

an element in group 18 on the periodic table

Metalloid

an element that has physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals

Semiconductor

a substance that conducts electricity at high temperatures but not at low temperatures

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