anatomy

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conjunctiva

the highly contagious bacteria known as "pinkeye" is caused by bacteria or viral irritation of the:

sclera

the fibrous outermost tunic seen anteriorly as the "white of the eye" is the:

cornea

the transparent central anterior portion of the sclera through which light enters the eye is called the:

choroid

the middle coat of the eyeball that contains pigment which prevents light from scattering in the eyeball is the:

retina

the layer of the eye that contains rods and cones

iris

the pigmented portion of the eye that has a rounded opening through which light passes is the:

blue, green, and red

the three sets of color receptors within the retina that are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light are:

fovea centralis

the greatest visual acuity(sharpness) is found at the:

scleral venous sinus(canal of Schlemm)

the aqueous humor of the eye is reabsorbed into venous blood through the:

vitreous humor

the gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward is the:

lens

what structure of the eye focuses light on the retina:

cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

the order of parts that light passes through as it enters the eye

mechanoreceptors

receptors stimulated by the physical forces that cause movement of fluid or vibration within the body are:

tympanic membrane

sound waves entering the external auditory canal hit the eardrum, aka the:

spiral organ of Corti

hair cells that function as hearing receptors are located within the:

malleus, incus, stapes

the pathway of vibrations through the ossicles from the tympanic membrane, or eardrum, to the oval window is:

inner ear

equilibrium receptors are located

middle ear

an ear infection following an illness such as a cold has passed from the throat through the auditory tube to the:

incus

the auditory ossicle called the "anvil" is also called the:

vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea, membranous labyrinth

parts of the inner ear

semicircular canals

dynamic equilibrium receptors are found in the:

vestibule

the portion of the bony labyrinth responsible for static equilibrium is the:

dynamic equilibrium

gustatory hairs are to taste as olfactory hairs are to:

bitter, salty, sour, sweet

the primary taste sensations:

urethra

urine is transported from the bladder to the outside of the body by the:

filtration

the nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called:

transitional epithelium

the bladder is able to expand as urine accumulates within it due to the presence of:

Bowman's capsule

the enlarged, cup-shaped closed end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is called the:

slightly aromatic, sterile, more dense than water, and typically contains ammonia

true statements about urine under normal healthy conditions:

external urethral sphincter

the voluntarily controlled sphincter fashioned by skeletal muscle at the point where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor called the:

micturition

the process of emptying the bladder is referred to as voiding or:

proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule

starting from the glomerular capsule, the correct order of the renal tubule regions is:

500 mL

the average adult bladder is moderately full with_______(how much) of urine within it.

ureter

the tube connecting the renal hilus of the kidney to the bladder is the:

cortex

most nephrons are located within the renal:

regulates blood volume, converts vitamin D from its inactive to its active form, disposes of metabolic waste products, and manufactures urine

kidney functions

ureter, urethra, kidney, and urinary bladder

organs found in the urinary system

plasma

the matrix of blood is called:

leukocytes and platelets

in a centrifuged blood sample, the buffy coat between the formed elements and the plasma contains:

4,000-11,000

there are an average of _________ WBCs per cubic millimeter of whole blood

megakaryocytes

platelets are fragments of multinucleate cells called:

hematopoiesis

blood cell formation is called ___________ and occurs in red bone marrow

100-120 days

the average functional lifespan of an RBC is:

erythropoietin

the hormone that regulates the rate of erythrocyte production is called:

hemostasis

the series of reactions that stop blood flow following a cut is called:

vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation

the proper sequence of hemostasis

1 minute

blood normally clots in approximately:

embolus

a clot that breaks away from a vessel wall and circulates freely within the bloodstream is called an:

hemophilia

one kind of blood clotting disorder

calcium

the ion essential for blood clotting is:

over 50%

severe shock occurs with blood loss of:

agglutination

the process whereby the binding of antibodies to antigens causes RBCs to clump is called:

O

the most common blood type in the US population

AB

the universal recipient has blood type:

A and B antigens

ABO blood groups are based on the presence of:

cross matching

compatibility testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipients' serum is called:

7.35 and 7.45

normal pH of blood is between ____ & _____

water

blood plasma is largely:

leukopenia

an abnormally low WBC count is called:

hemocytoblast

all formed elements arise from a common type of stem cell called a:

"bleeder's disease"

hemophilia is commonly called:

mobilizing body defenses against stressors, growth and development, regulating cellular metabolism, and maintaining electrolyte balance

major processes controlled by hormones

hormones

the chemical messengers of the endocrine system are known as:

goiter

an enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting from a deficiency of dietary iodine is called:

iodine

the element necessary in the diet for proper thyroid function is:

melatonin

the pineal gland produces

stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete hormones

what do tropic hormones do:

pituitary gland

the hypothalamus is most closely associated with the:

thyroid hormone

the body's major metabolic hormone is called:

calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

hormones that regulate calcium levels in the body:

epinephrine

the "fight-or-flight" response triggers the release of:

a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose

insulin causes:

most hormones

negative feedback mechanisms regulate:

thyroid

the gland that's primarily responsible for body metabolism

ovaries

the gland that's the major producer of female hormones

pituitary

the gland that has both glandular and nervous tissue associated with it is:

parathyroid

the glands that act as antagonists to the thyroid gland

pancreas

the gland that produces insulin and glucagon

hypothalamus

the producer of hormones released by the posterior pituitary

adrenal

the glands that produce steroids and catecholamines

testes

the gland that produces testosterone

pineal

the gland that produces melatonin

larynx, nose, trachea, pharynx

the conducting passageways of the respiratory system

both the hard and soft palate

the nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by:

lightens the skull, helps to moisten the air, act as resonance chambers for speech, produce mucus

functions of the paranasal sinuses

epiglottis

the flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the:

towards the throat to be swallowed or spat out

cilia of the trachea that beat continually propel contaminated mucus:

the narrower portion of each lung is called the apex, the left lung has two lobes, the bases rest on the diaphragm, the right lung has three lobes

four facts about the lungs

simple diffusion

exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by:

surfactant

the lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces is called:

pulmonary ventilation

air moving in and out of the lungs is called:

internal respiration

the gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systematic capillaries is called:

vital capacity

the respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air is the:

500 mL

the amount of air exchanged during normal quiet breathing is about:

bicarbonate ion

most carbon dioxide is transported within blood plasma as:

oxyhemoglobin

oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the blood to form:

increased carbon dioxide in the blood

the most important chemical stimuli leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is:

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal:

pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve

the small intestine extends from the:

absorption of nutrients

the primary function of the small intestine is:

cecum, appendix, colon, and rectum

subdivisions of the large intestine:

32

number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is:

pancreas

the accessory digestive organ that produces enzymes that break down all food groups is the:

liver; gallbladder

bile is produced by the _______ but stored in the ________.

chemical digestion

the sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes within hydrolysis reactions is called:

segmentation

the process by which food within the small intestine is mixed with digestive juices by backward and forward movement across the internal wall of the organ is called:

absorption

transport of digested end products from the lumen GI tract into the bloodstream or lymphatic fluid is called:

starch

the first nutrient to be chemically digested is:

esophagus

an alimentary segment that has no digestive function:

gastrin

the hormone responsible for causing the stomach to release pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrochloric acid is:

3-6 hours

the journey of chyme through the small intestine takes:

some of the B vitamins, vitamin K, ions, water

things absorbed by the human large intestine:

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