environment in which concentration of solute outside cell is greater than on inside of cell
environment in which concentration of solute inside cell is greater than concentration outside of cell.
shrinkage of the cell's plasma membrane causing inhibition of the cell's growth
cell bursting due to influx of water and the cell wall is weak or damaged
an aqueous solution containing nutrients prepared for the growth of microorganisms in a laboratory that provides an energy source, a carbon source, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and any organic growth factor the organism cannot synthesize and must maintain a proper pH, contain moisture, oxygen requirement and be sterile prior to inoculation
a complex polysaccharide obtained from a marine algae which liquifies at 100 C and solidifies at 40 C and is a solid medium
media containing ingredients such as sodium thioglycolate which combine with oxygen and deplete the oxygen in the medium for obligate anaerobes
aerobic organisms that grow better at high CO2 concentrations
a sealed jar containing a lit candle which burns O2 and elevates the concentration of CO2 for capnophile growth and mimics the conditions of the intestinal, respiratory and other body tracts where pathogenic bacteria grow
a culture containing cells of only one type
an increase in bacterial numbers
method of bacterial reproduction
the time required for a cell to divide (and its population to double)-most of the time between 1 to 3 hours but varies by species, concentration of nutrients, medium, pH, temperature etc.
The four phases of bacterial growth
phase at which growth is zero while bacteria are synthesizing dna, enzymes, etc.
phase at which growth is exponential and constant (a straight line) and during which cells are most active metabolically-the best time to use antimicrobial agents
phase at which microbial deaths balances the number of new cells and the population remains stable and during which metabolic activities of individual cells slow as waste accumulates, nutrients are exhausted, O2 is depleted and pH drops--endospores may develop here
number of cell deaths exceed number of new cells formed
the irreversible loss of ability of an organism to grow and divide but not necessarily to carry out metabolism and affect the environment--a cell is considered dead if it fails to give rise to a colony on any medium